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Class TXllS 

Book Jb__ 



"There is something wrong with the 
home that is not the happiest spot on 

The Author and Her Daughter Isabelle. 



The Poor 

The Rich 

The Sick 

The Well 

A Reform from the Old Wasteful Methods 

to the Saving, Scientific and 

Nourishing Ones 





Copyright, 1910 






Soups 17 

Fish 26 

Meats 34 

Sauces, Dressing, Etc 5T 

Vegetables 61 

Eggs 82 

Salads 88 

Bread • 97 

Sandwiches 113 

Desserts • 117 

Sweet Sauces 126 

Pies 129 

Creams, Sherbets, Ices 135 

Cheese 137 

Cakes, Cookies, Doughnuts 142 

Table of Weights and Measures 156 

Cereals 158 

Drinks 160 

Canning 169 

Milk 190 

Foods 193 

The Sick '. .204 

Home-Making. 215 

Dining Room and Kitchen 225 

Laundry '. 233 

To Rid the House of Pests 243 

Household Hints 249 

Menus — Lenten • 265 

A Few Health Hints 276 

Miscellaneous 290 

Quotations and Extracts 308 

A treatise aiming to cover all the practical, every- 
day needs of the homes of people of small means, and 
showing how these homes can be made happy. 

A few menus are given merely as a starter to help 
a young housewife plan meals. By using these for a 
short time, she will soon learn to make up her own. 

Labor and time saving depends on the arrangement 
of house, and also of the house furnishings. When 
arranging a house it is well to keep in mind a ship — • 
where all space is used and made handy as possible 
especially the kitchen. Have plenty of shelves, hooks, 
nails, etc. and always remember one of the great laws 
and secrets of good housekeeping is: 

"A place for ever3'thing and everything in its place." 

A clean and cheerful house makes a happy home. 
Consider no work common or unclean, whether tend- 
ing the baby or emptying ashes, as it is God's will 
whatever falls to our share— therefore make it bubble 
over with joy by doing it for God, and no matter how 
menial it may seem, do it the best you know how. He 
takes care of the result. 

Know how to buy. Know how to cook. Know how 
to save. What is left over must never be thrown 
away. It can be converted into a new delicious dish, 
fed to animals or used as a fertilizer for the garden. 
Bones ground up are excellent fertilizers. In teaching 
yourself don't forget to teach the children; though 
their work will be rough and half done they should 
never be discouraged or allowed to overdo. The train- 
ing, be it ever so little or much, means building of char- 
acter, etc., which adds to their success in later years 
no matter what their calling will be. 

Two laws of Le Clerc (one of the greatest cooks of 
France). "Quality of food is better than quantity." 
"Nothing in a kitchen can ever go to waste if you will 
learn what to do with all that enters that kitchen." 

To the Laboring Class and Farmer's Wives and 
Children, this work is sincerely dedicated. 

The writer has made special effort to make this 
little work assist the poor servant girl. 

To Miss Marie Yaeger, my classmate and friend of 
long standing, I am indebted for much I have learned 
in both cooking and nursing. She has been a source 
of unfailing inspiration through the many hard strug- 
gles of both school and lifework. 


Whether a cook is born or made, much depends on 
his or her application to study. One should strive to 
get at least a little knowledge of the chemistry of 
cooking or he will not know what combinations do 

For this reason I place particular stress upon a care- 
ful reading and re-reading of the preface that you 
may get an idea of how to use this little book. 

"Civilized man cannot live without cooks." — Lucille. 



It is always well to state carefully the aim of a book. 

My first object is to give a partial idea of scientific 
cooking whereby many may know how to improve 
their health and prevent kidney and stomach trouble, 
of which a great percentage is caused by not knowing 
what we should eat and how it should be cooked. 

While I have taken a course in the three branches 
of cooking; Invalid, Plain and Fancy, I sorely feel the 
lack of ability or power to impart the knowledge 
which I found that I so much needed and which is 
needed in homes everywhere. However, I will do my 
utmost to give others the benefit of my experience. 

A second object of this little book is to help young 
housekeepers of only moderate means to plan and 
cook meals that will nourish the system and still man- 
age the financial part so as to save a husband's hard 
earned money, which should be one of the aims of all 
conscientious, thrifty housewives. 

A third object is to enable those, who never have 
been able to save on their table, to do so easily with 
very little study. A few menus and rules will be 

A fourth object is to give a few invalid principles 
and receipts so that people who cannot afford a trained 
nurse or intelligent help, may lessen the sufferings of 
the poor sick one by knowing how to make the stomach 
and nerves comfortable, by giving a simple and care- 
fully prepared diet, which will greatly aid the doctor 
who feels the responsibility. Many invalids suffer 



most pitiably because those who care for them are 
afraid they will give something they ought not to; 
or on the other hand, by giving too much. In either 
case the digestive properties of the food should not 
be destroyed by too fast or too slow cooking. 

The fifth object, last but not least, is the help it may 
offer to banish the saloon evil. Good cooking is one 
of the most essential aids. If the system is properly 
nourished and nerves kept in fine condition the crav- 
ing for drink will be absent. Many will doubt this 
and call it bosh, but, nevertheless, it is true. 

While I have been working on this little volume, I 
have come upon the following little extracts from news- 
papers and elsewhere, that help to carry out some of my 
sentiments in regard to this subject. 

A New York judge looked down upon 

A culprit pale with fear ; 
"Your face," he said, "convinces me 

Bad cooking brought you here. 
The provender your wife prepares 

Is surely wretched stuff ; 
What sort of biscuit does she bake?" 

The culprit sobbed, "It's tough," 
The j'udge looked down upon the wight, 

"You're not to blame, I think ; 
Bad cooking is the curse that drives 

A million men to drink." 

A girl's ideal at seventeen 

Must have fine eyes ; 
Likewise a bold and striking mien 

And faultless ties ; 
But later on her fancies roam 
To one who'll bring his wages home. 

A man's ideal at seventeen 

Must be a sprite ; 
A dainty, fluffy, elfin queen 

Of sheer delight; 
But later on he sorter feels 
He wants a girl who can cook meals. 


This little extract shows the faulty system of edu- 
cation in both our public schools and American homes. 
False ideals. Domestic Science is looked down upon 
instead of being raised to the high professional ideal 
where it belongs. An ideal a girl should have the 
pleasure of being proud of instead of disdainfully 
casting aside. Watch what good old Germany is doing 
^in this line. Read what you can of the Froebel sys- 
tem. Mothers should do all they can to train their 
girls, mildly, pleasantly and as intelligently as they 
can in this line and the public schools should help 

A little of this training will not hurt the boys. 
There often come periods in their lives , when such 
knowledge is very valuable. It is easier for mothers 
to do the work themselves, but this is not doing justice 
to the poor little untrained fingers or doing the duty 
God has mapped out for them. "He sat at the dinner 
table with a discontented frown; the potatoes and 
steak were underdone and the bread was baked too 
brown; the pie was heavy, the pudding too sweet, and 
the meat was much too fat ; the soup too greasy, too, 
and salt, 'twas hardly fit for the cat." 

The above extract shows a carelessly planned meal, 
or one gotten up by those who boast of getting meals 
in such a short time as fifteen minutes, slapped up in 
a hurry. This is one of the great faults of our Ameri- 
can cooking — too fast — destroying the digestive prop- 
erties of the food, thereby robbing the system of the 
nourishment it so much needs and causing great waste 
physically as well as financially. 

I am indebted to my beloved cooking school teacher 
for nearly all of the principles which you will find at 
the head of each chapter, and which, let me urge 
strongly are often more important than the recipe you 
may be using, for by knowing these you can often 


make up your own recipe scientifically and also detect 
mistakes in any you may happen to read. The chief 
object of the principles is to learn what is right for 
our hard working systems. 

I started a little notebook of recipes when a very 
young girl always getting the recipe, if I could, of 
anything I thought delicious, and have on hand a fair 
collection, so that not all these recipes are my own, 
and I am selecting what I consider the most practical, 
cheapest, best and useful for all; just a little handy 
book for the poor and hard-working who have little 
time to read and study through long chapters and 
fancy menus. 

Great care has been taken to show how a good 
nourishing diet may be provided by people of little 
means, making the home comfortable and happy. 

With the hope that this little book will help a few, 
at least, of our many hard working housewives to make 
their work easier, more cheerful and professional, it 
is herewith submitted, M. E. W. 

Kenosha, Wis. 



The principle of meat soup is to draw or rather ex- 
tract as much nourishment from the meat and bones, 
also gristle and marrow, as possible, therefore cold 
water should be used and heated slowly and the meat 
and bone cut and sawed in small pieces. Clean scraps 
of each can be saved, both raw and cooked, steak 
bones and other clean scraps from the table, and when 
enough is accumulated, a delicious soup can be made. 

In the winter time these can be kept in the soup 
kettle, but in the summer it is best to gather them in 
a jar or dish in the icebox and for not longer than 
two days. The meat should be lean and fresh. Soft 
water is best and it is good to soak it overnight or 
put the water on as soon as possible after getting up. 
In cold weather enough soup stock can be made at one 
time to last a week and many different delicious soups 
and gravies be made from it the rest of the week. It 
must not freeze but be kept very cold. If danger 
of spoiling on a hot night, it can be brought 
to a boil the. night before and let simmer for 
fifteen minutes or it can be entirely made the 
night before, strained and simply skimmed and 
warmed next day. Do not let it get above simmering 
point (160-170 degrees) for a great part of the nourish- 
ment is destroyed above that point. The juices from 
the meat will be extracted in two or three hours, but 
the bones take four to six hours, so that it would be 



well to put the bones over first, though not necessary. 
Leave the scum on as it contains albumen of the soup. 
Some think all the juices of the meat are extracted 
but not so. A little cooked cornbeef or other good 
meat can be added to the soup meat, flavored and made 
into nice hash or patties. 

Flavorings should not be added till about one hour 
or a little better, before removing. Any desired vege- 
table may be used, and if the stock is made the day 
before, the vegetables can be simmered in a little hot 
water and added when soup is warmed. 

Grated carrot colors it, also chopped parsley or 
spinach. Some like spices but these should not be 
used often. Salt and pepper or a little paprika can 
be added just before serving. Some people prefer to 
strain it before adding vegetables, otherwise strain 
before serving and skim off as much fat as possible, 
or let stand over night and skim off just before warm- 
ing next day, and not until then as the layer of fat 
keeps nourishment in the soup. This latter method 
is best for invalids. Pieces of dry bread or tissue 
paper will greatly aid one in getting off the fat if going 
to serve at once, though a little of the fat does no 
harm, unless the stomach is very weak. 

A handful of oatmeal added when putting meat 
over, adds to the proportion of nourishment. 

Mutton makes a very nutritious soup — also chicken, 
but chicken is too expensive except the left overs of 
it, though it is all right to get it for the sick who un- 
less very weak or forbidden by physician, can take 
strained soups of any kind. All soups are made ac- 
cording to the same principles. 

When tomatoes are not on hand for flavoring, a 
• good tomato catsup (about 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls) may 
be substituted. Some like it in all kinds of soup, add- 
ing a pinch of soda when used in milk soups. 


A little jar of soup stock can be taken out before 
putting vegetables in, cooled and put in ice box to 
make gravies of. Vegetables that blend well together 
may be mixed to make soup if one does not happen to 
have enough of one kind. The fireless cooker is a 
blessing in soupmaking as well as other cooking. Lit- 
tle booklets of directions go with them. 


If one needs a soup in a hurry, this is a very easy 
one to make. For four people, take 1 lb. Hamburg 
(good), a small section of cabbage chopped, one piece 
of celery, one onion, one carrot and one or two good 
sized potatoes, and a little rice. Cut all up fine, put all 
together with 2 quarts of cold water and simmer 
slowly for two hours. Season and serve without 

If one has no meat grinder the meat can be chopped, 
or if the butcher grinds it he can remove the fat first. 
Round steak is meant. 

If one desires, they can mix a little can of herbs for 
flavoring soups — marjoram, thyme, savory, bay leaf. 
Use about one even teaspoonful to a pound of meat. 

Neck, ankle, shank and shin are most used for 

Broth is stronger than soup, using a pint of water 
to a pound of meat for strong, and one quart of water 
to pound of meat for weak broth. Soak bones if any 
in half of the water. 

Puree is a thick soup of beans or peas. 

In making creamed or vegetable soups, use about 
one pint of pulp (which may be diluted slightly with 
hot water when pressing through colander) to one 
quart of milk. These are more nutritious than stock 
soups. Some are often delicious without putting 
through colander. 


Spinach makes an excellent soup for invalids — it 
should be boiled with scarcely any water and then 
made like potato soup. A double boiler is best, taking 
just a little longer to cook. 

Corn soup is made the same, also, only it must not 
be cooked longer than five minutes unless made in 
double boiler. 

White sauce is the foundation of creamed soups. 

Avoid putting too much onion in any soup. 

BEEF JUICE. (First-class way) 

One-half pound beef. Don't cook any more at a 
time than needed. Trim off the fat and broil over 
the hot fire, turning every ten seconds for three min- 
utes, no longer. If overcooked or just warmed juice 
will not run freely. Then cut meat on a hot platter, 
in one-half inch pieces, and gash with a knife. 

Put into a lemon squeezer over warm water, but 
not too hot. 

One-half pound meat will make 4 tablespoonfuls 
which is enough for a patient. 

BEEF TEA. (Excellent) 

This is stimulating but not nourishing, and if taken 
alone, about a half hour before breakfast, it often 
proves a good laxative; a half cup is sufficient for a 
patient. A pound of round steak makes nearly a 
breakfast cupful. 

Take a half pound of round steak, remove fat, cut in 
one or two inch squares or pieces, put in pint fruit jar 
with a tiny bit of salt, and put cover on without rub- 
ber. Set in teakettle in cold water, on back of stove, 
or if gas range turn gas low when nearly ready to 
boil, or after simmering a few minutes, remove jar, 
when meat will be white and pour juice which is seen 


at bottom, into warm cup. May pour a very little of 
hot water over meat in jar and pour off second time 
into cup. It is better for digestion without pepper, 
though it adds to the flavor of it. 


Three potatoes, i/^ teaspoonful celery salt (if liked), 
1 teaspoonful salt,.! pint milk, 1 salt spoon white pep- 
per, I teaspoonful chopped or sliced onion, or a table- 
spoon will do no harm, % salt spoon of cayenne pep- 
per, 1 stalk celery, ^ tablespoonful flour, 1 tablespoon- 
ful butter. 

Wash and pare potatoes. Soak in cold water one- 
half hour, then boil till soft. Cook onion, celery and 
milk and pour into potatoes, then add other ingredi- 
ents. Boil or better, simmer about four minutes, and 
serve. Better if onion is soaked ion cold water, then 
simply warmed and drained before adding. 

This recipe serves about three or four people. It 
can be made much simpler and if potatoes 'are old, par- 
boil five or ten minutes and throw first water away, 
A few homemade noodles are nice cooked in it a few 
minutes before taking up. A teaspoon or two of 
cream of wheat may be boiled with potatoes and less 
pepper may be used. Milk may be diluted if scarce, 
but it is not so nourishing. Left over Macaroni, 
tomatoes or other left overs may be used. 



Two quarts of boiling water, 1 cup strained toma- 
toes, 1 tablespoonful chopped parsley, 1 cup each 
chopped onions, carrots and celery, ^/^ cup each 
chopped turnips, parsnips, cabbage, 1 teaspoonful 
sugar, 1 teaspoonful salt, 1 salt spoon pepper; use all 
varieties of vegetables you wish. 


Use about half as much pulp as liquid. 

Cook cabbage, cauliflour, parsnips and potatoes, five 
minutes, and drain carefully. Parboil the onion and 
brown in butter, also carrots. Simmer the soup one 
and one-half to two hours, not boil. Always add 
sugar to vegetables. If white sauce is added, it should 
be mixed with some of the vegetable liquor. 


One-half cup Pearl barley, 2 pounds neck of mutton, 
2 quarts cold water, J4 cup each of carrots, turnips, 
onion and celery, 2 tablespoonfuls butter, 1 table- 
spoonful flour, 2 teaspoonfuls salt, 1 salt spoon pepper, 
1 tablespoonful chopped parsley. 

Pick over and soak the barley three hours or over 
night. Put bones to simmer in 1 pint of cold water, 
and meat in 3 pints cold water. Let it come to a 
boil and skim carefully, and then add the barley. 
Vegetables should be cut in dice, fry five minutes in 
one tablespoonful butter, then add them to meat, and 
simmer three or four hours till the meat and barley 
are very tender. Strain the water in which the bones 
have simmered. Cook 1 tablespoonful butter in sauce- 
pan with 1 tablespoonful flour. When smooth, add 
strained water gradually and stir into the broth ; then 
add salt, pepper and parsley. Simmer ten minutes and 
serve without straining. Always trim off the skin of 
beef or mutton — also the fat before Hiding. Excellent. 

(Mrs. Sexton). 


One-half peck of spinach washed four times with 
plenty of water. Use only the leaves. Pack into 
double boiler, without water, put cozy on and steam 
one hour. Press through press or colander. 


Have ready a white sauce of one tablespoonful of 
flour rubbed in one or two of butter, and 1 quart of 
milk with a Httle pinch of soda, salt and very little 
pepper (if for an invalid, leave out pepper). Cook 
till it thickens. Add the spinach, stir or beat quite 
well and serve at once. Excellent for an invalid. 

Just a little white sauce may be added to a little of 
the spinach and served on a piece of toast. 


Parboil a bunch of celery, 1 good sized onion, about 
ten minutes, cut in pieces, and drain, pour on fresh 
boiling water enough to cover, simmer one hour and 
put through a coarse colander. Scald 3 cups of milk 
in double boiler, add to it celery and also the water 
in which celery was boiled, and ^ tablespoonful flour 
(rounding) ; with 1 of butter rubbed or melted in tiny 
granite pan. Stir, let steam about three minutes and 
serve. It may be flavored with a cup of strained 
tomatoes in which is a pinch of soda. Not necessary 
to heat the tomatoes, have them in a warm place ready 
to season. 

Serve with croutons or browned crackers. This 
may also be made like creamed tomato soup. 


Tomatoes may be strained or not, and heated or 
not, as one likes. If heated, remove just a minute or 
two before adding milk gravy or they will curdle it. 
Put in ^ to 54 teaspoonful of soda into tomatoes, ac- 
cording to the principles given. The proportion is 
about a quart of milk to 1 can of tomatoes and 1 or 2 
tablespoonfuls of flour and butter according to thick- 
ness one desires. 

Season. Onion and flour may be added or omitted, 
making a thick or thin soup. 


TOMATO SOUP. (For six people) 

One can tomatoes, one good sized onion, 1 table- 
spoonful flour, one teaspoonful salt, 2 teaspoonfuls 
sugar, a little paprika. Brown butter, flour and onions 
(stirring constantly), lightly. Add two cups warm 
water and the tomatoes. Boil fifteen minutes, strain 
and serve. 

BEAN SOUP. (Invalid Style) 

For six or seven people, take about three breakfast 
cups of beans. Put over in cold water and when they 
come to a boil add Yz teaspoonful of soda. Drain, add 
boiling water and parboil five to ten minutes. Strain 
and parboil again in boiling water for the same time. 
Simmer two and a half to three hours in the fourth' 
water (have plenty of it). If you wish to save stock 
for gravyr drain ofif a cup or two before mashing or 
putting through colander. Add cup of milk and 4 
rolled crackers, butter and onion cut small, which has 
been parboiled and drained. Season. Let come to a 
boil and serve. Excellent. 

For common use, this need not be put through col- 


The same as bean soup. 


Let 1 quart of oysters come to a boil, in 3 cups of 
hot water. Simmer about ten minutes. Add 1 quart of 
scalded milk and 2 or 3 rolled crackers. Season with 
butter, pepper and salt. Serve with oyster crackers. 


These are used considerably in Germany. Children 
are very fond of them. Usually made of grapes, 


prunes or apples. They are served cold. They are 
simply the sauces with more water added and sim- 
mered for a longer time than sauce, and the fruit 
mashed or strained. Arrowroot or flour is used for 
thickening and lemon for flavoring. 



T 1 • J r r" u i Red Blood — Fat distributed throughout 
Two kinds of Fish, j ^j^j^.^ Blood-Fat distributed in liver. 

Fish is alkali and requires some lemon juice or acid. 
Oily fish should always be boiled, not fried. 

Red. < Eel. White. 



White fish. 
^ Brook and lake trout. 

Buy fish in which the eyes are prominent, scales 
bright, flesh firm and odor fresh. 

Fish must be fresh, the fresher the better. 

Never leave fresh fish in water over night. Clean 
and dry, salt, wrap in paraffin paper and put right 
on the ice. Fish must be always well cooked. 

Great care must be taken with dishes which have 
been used for preparing and cooking fish, thoroughly 
wash, scald and put in sun or they will taint other 
foods, the broiler especially. 


One can of salmon, drain oflf the liquor, 4 eggs 
beaten light, four tablespoonfuls melted butter, J/^ cup- 
ful fine bread crumbs, season with salt, pepper and 

Chop or break fish fine, then rub butter in till fine 
and smooth. ^Beat the crumbs with the eggs and 
seasoning before working them together. Steam one 


hour in buttered mold. Two good baking powder 
cans (1 pound) will do. 

Left over cream of wheat may be added to this and 
only 2 eggs and a little milk used, or in Lent when 
fish and eggs are not allowed at the same meal use 
more cream of wheat and leave out the eggs. A little 
cream may be added. 


One cupful of milk heated to boiling point and thick- 
ened with 1 tablespoonful corn starch, or 2 of flour. 
Add liquor of salmon and butter if not rich enough, 
1 raw egg, 1 teaspoonful tomato catsup, pinch of 
cayenne pepper, one tablespoonful of chopped sour 
cucumber pickle. Rub egg in last and very carefully. 
Heat one minute. Turn fish from mold on- heated 
platter and pour the sauce over it. Serve at once. 
This sauce can be made for other fish. The egg may 
be added after gravy is removed from the stove. 

BAKED TROUT (Very Good) 

Cut off fins with scissors, or with a sharp knife 
(paring). The backbone with all the other bones can 
be easily slipped out, after loosening the flesh from 
them with knife, cut off the head. Lay an old toaster 
on bottom of dripping pan (one without handles), 
well greased, both pan and toaster. Lay fish open and 
flat, skin side down. Season with butter, pepper and 
salt and dredge with flour. Baste with milk or cream 
two or three times while baking. Bake till golden 

Can be served with sauce for salmon loaf or cream 
gravy, or tomato sauce. Time, about three-fourths 
to one hour. 



One cup stale bread crumbs, 1 saltspoonful salt, 
1 saltspoonful pepper, 1 teaspoonful pickles, 1 tea- 
spoonful chopped onion, 1 teaspoonful chopped pars- 
ley, 1 teaspoonful of chopped capers, Yz cup melted 
butter. This is dry stuffing. 

Stuff the fish after cleaning thoroughly. Cut one 
or more gashes, put in slices of bacon in gashes. Put 
a skewer or cord through to make it stand in form 
of the letter "S." Put on a rest such as an old toaster, 
well greased. Wrap paraffin paper around the tail. 
Cut off fins with scissors. The fish is supposed to ap- 
pear as though swimming. Surround the platter with 
any nice sauce. Baste very often with milk or little 
butter and hot water. 

HOLLANDAISE SAUCE (This is nice for fish) 

One-fourth cup of butter, yolks of 2 eggs, juice of J4 
lemon, 1 saltspoonful of salt, ^ saltspoonful cayenne 
pepper, Yz cup of boiling water. 

Rub butter to a cream, add yolk,, one at a time, and 
beat well. Add lemon juice, salt and pepper. About 
five minutes before serving, add boiling water. Place 
bowl in double boiler. Stir rapidly until like boiled 

Pour around meat or fish. 


To fry or bake, the latter is better. Soak in cold 
water a half hour, then skin (they skin very easily), 
and put in cold water slightly salted. Lay on a towel 
and dry off a little. If to be kept till next day, salt 
and lay plate right on the ice. Roll in flour, or ^%% and 
bread crumbs, season and either fry or bake a rich 



Soak mackerel over night in cold water. Change 
water before retiring. In the morning, wipe off and 
broil on well greased broiler; if using gas, light it a 
few minutes before so that broiler will be heated. 
Charcoal broilers can be bought which are very good, 
as they can be used with or without a fire in the range. 
Serve on platter with white or other sauce. 


It is necessary to have a regular fish pan. It takes 
about the same time as to bake, or a little longer. Put 
on in cold water and boil very gently. A little vinegar, 
red pepper and salt may be added to the water. 
Steaming is more delicate than boiling. 

CANNED SALMON (Salmon Souffle) 

Free one can of salmon from all skin and center 
bone. Put in cake bowl and rub smooth, add to it 
the beaten yolks of 2 eggs ; beat and season with a 
little paprika, salt and butter. Last add the beaten 
whites. Bake in hot oven. 

Canned corn and mashed potatoes may be prepared 
the same way. Milk may be added to any of these. 

The potatoes are often called potato puff or puffs 
if fried like croquettes. 


Put cod fish to soak over night in cold water or very 
early in the morning. Change water and set on back 
of range. Let it come almost to a boil and cover and 
keep hot for half an hour. Drain and separate into 
small pieces, removing skin and bones, if any, leaving 
nothing but the nice, clean flakes. 


Put into white sauce and serve. Delicious with 
toast or baked potatoes. Nice for an invalid. 


Prepare fish as above, only shred a little finer, add 
to it the same amount of mashed potatoes and an tgg 
if liked or fish may be added to potatoes and then 
mash. Mix and form into balls. Fry on a griddle like 
griddle cakes or in boiling fat like croquettes. Other 
fish can be prepared the same. A little cream or milk 
may be added. Any left over fish may be shredded 
and escalloped with white sauce, and crumbs. 

Cold cooked fish can be cut fine and added to a very 
thin white sauce for fish soup, same as creamed soups. 
One cup cod fish to 1^ quarts of milk. Serve with 
croutons or crackers. 


Any fresh fish will do. Canned clams make good 
chowder. Cut the fish in pieces and put in layers in a 
pudding dish with bits of fat pork, pepper and salt be- 
tween the layers. Some use a few bread crumbs and 
sliced potatoes between the layers. Bake for about a 
half hour, then put on crust of mashed potatoes rolled 
with flour or biscuit dough and bake another half 
hour. It may be flavored with a little onion cut fine. 


Make either in baking dish or on fish shells, placed 
in dripping pan or on grate of the oven, a layer of 
oysters, a few cracker crumbs, white sauce and so on 
till dish is full. The shells sometimes only hold one 
or two layers. Bake till nice and brown. 

Oysters are nice fried plainly or rolled in egg and 


cracker, one, two or three together, or if wanted fancy, 
(pigs in blankets), roll a thin piece of bacon around 
each large oyster and put toothpick through for a 
skewer, then fry. May be put in wire basket and 
fried in deep fat. 






J. Fore ribs (five ribs), considered a prime roast piece. 

K. Middle ribs (four ribs), for roasts. 

L. Chuck ribs, for second choice roasts. 

M. Brisket, for soups, corned beef, etc. 

N. Shoulder, for pot roasts, stews, soups, hash, mince meat, etc. 

0. Sticking piece (neck), for sausages, mince pie meat, stock, 

soups, etc. 
P. Same as O in name and uses. 
Q. Cheek. 


A. Porterhouse and sirloin steaks; also choice roasts. 

B. Rump, for corned beef, stews and steaks. 

C. Aitch bone, for pot roasts, stews, etc. 

D. Round or buttock, for steaks, pot roasts and boiling. 

E. Round, for boiling and stewing. 

F. Shin, for hashes, soups, etc. 

G. Thick flank, for stews, corned and pressed beef; also a nice 

boiling piece. 
H. Veiny piece, for dried and corned beef. 

1. Thin flank, for corned beef, boiling, etc. 



"Some hae meat, and canna eat, 

And some wad eat that want it; 
But we hae meat and we can eat. 
And sae the Lord be thankit." 

— Burns. 
In a beef there are two fillets, one on each side in each hind 
quarter, which is the most expensive part of the beef. The fillet 
is the same as the tenderloin of a porterhouse steak. When the 
fillet is taken out and larded (placed on thin piece of board) the 
porterhouse is then sold for club steak. 

The plate or brisket, skirt flank and flank are not seen from 
the outside or given in this cut, but are underneath and toward 
the inside of the beef. 

Besides the parts here given, are the heart, tongue, kidneys 
and liver, that may be prepared in many nice ways. The ox tail 
is used for soup. 

Other animals are cut nearly the same ; corresponding parts 
often have different names. 


' Stocks, 

Mince-pie Meat, 

Bologna Sausage, 
Broths — very nutritious. 

Forequarter ■■ 


Shoulder Piece 

Knuckle Bone for Soup, 

Pot Roast (most common use), 
^ Mince Meat. 
■Mostly for soups and stews. 


Chuck j ^°^^ll \ Second quality. 
Middle Ribs — Four ribs used for roasting. 
Fore Ribs { g^sl^aks. 

Corned Beef, 
Brisket J Stews, 


Spiced Beef, 
Cross Ribs— Stews. 
' Porterhouse Steak > 
Sirloin Steaks ) 

I Steaks, 
Rump •< Stews, 

( Corned Beef. 

Hindquarter •< 

Choice Roasts. 

Round -^ 

Mouse Round 



Beef a la Mode, 

Pot Roasts, 


J Stews, 

1 Soups. 

Flank and Veiny Piece 

\ Stews, 
Corned Beef, 
Dried and Pressed Beef. 



It is not always the most expensive meats that are 
the most nutritious, nor the tender so much as the 
tough. One can save much on the table by carefully 
cooking and making many palatable and nourishing 
dishes from the cheap meats, or by making the expens- 
ive meats into dishes that will require less of it than 
when cooked alone, and still supply the nourishment 
the system demands. 

In boiling meats very careful attention must be 
paid to the temperature of the water and never use 
salt till it is done. Place fresh meat in kettle of boil- 
ing water (soft water is best), and when it comes to 
a boil, do not skim, as this is not dirt but one of the 
most nourishing properties — the albumen, and then 
place where it will simmer very slowly, constantly for 
two or three hours. This immersion in boiling water 
hardens the fibrine on the outside so that it retains the 
rich juices or the nourishment. Salt extracts the 
juices, hard boiling hardens and makes it very little 
better than leather. A heavy iron kettle helps to re- 
tain this lowness and evenness of temperature, better 
still the fireless cooker. Bubbles should appear in 
one or two places only, not all over the top. 

Salt meat should be put on in cold water, this fresh- 
ens it. Some are improved by soaking in cold water 
over night and change water in the morning, as salt 
pork. Allow about fifteen to twenty minutes per 
pound for fresh meat and thirty-five for salt meat 



Modify this if the quality demands it. Beef and mut- 
ton require less time than veal and lamb which must 
be thoroughly cooked, also pork. 

A pod of red pepper boiled with meat, will prevent 
the unpleasant odor. Where the housewife has gas 
for cooking the temperature can be very easily regu- 
lated, but in the country a one-burner coal oil stove 
is the cheapest though not the best. These can be reg- 
ulated with little watching. Easiest of all a fireless 

Roasting proper is unknown in these days. The 
name is now applied to baked meats. Roasting proper 
is done before the coals, turning and basting and grad- 
ually moving back from the coals as it nears comple- 
tion. While it is an excellent method of cooking it is 
a very hard one and requires so much time and atten- 
tion that in these busy days, is not practical. 

Roasting or baking in the oven is much easier and 
simpler. The oven must be hot, but not so it will 
burn. If an open pan is used the meat should be set 
up from the bottom (an old toaster will do) and basted 
very often. 

Do not wash but wipe with a dampened towel. If 
meat has been kept too long, wash with vinegar or 
dip into hot baking soda water,^then dust with flour. 
If fire needs replenishing, add only a little fuel at a 
time, much fuel will check it too much. For beef and 
mutton, fifteen minutes to the pound and fifteen min- 
utes longer, — for pork, veal and lamb twenty minutes 
to the pound and twenty minutes longer. Very tender 
meats, eight, nine, and ten minutes. When done it is 
a rich brown and the bottom of the pan is covered 
with a rich, brown gravy which should be retained 
while pouring off the fat. If left to stand a few min- 
utes it will settle so that grease can be easily removed. 
Never salt before cooking or while cooking. The 


gravy is good thickened or not thickened, this latter is 
easier digested. Season just before serving. Some 
soak tough steaks or meats for two hours, turning 
four or five times, in a plate of salad oil and vinegar; 
butter may be substituted for the oil. 

Flavor of meat depends on the age, the younger 
animals have less flavor than the older. 

Where the most movement is there is the most 
nourishment, as the most blood flows there, such as 
the neck which is best for broth. Sirloin has but lit- 
tle nourishment, while round steak is very nourish- 
ing. The tenderloin is inside where there is not so 
much movement, it runs along the back. The prime 
rib roast is from third to sixth rib and is the very 
best roast. 

Broiling and roasting are the best ways of cooking 
meat and should be cooked this way for invalids. 

In broiling over coals there is much valuable fat 
wasted, but scientists say we make up for the loss in 
using little fuel and retaining nearly all the nourish- 
ment of the meat. 

Pan broiling without grease is nearly as good as 
broiling over fire. Wrap in paraffin paper and turn 

Meat to broil should be tender, wiped with damp 
cloth, not washed, always placed on greased broiler, 
cleared of the outside skin and fat. 

An inch thick steak takes four to six minutes to 
broil or fry. Temperature high at first then lower 
or move meat further away. 

Meats of short fibre as white of chicken and lamb 
chops are best for invalids as they are more easily di- 
gested than meats of long fibre, also more tender. 

When meat is cooked correctly, it is pink inside. 

To fry meats, lard can be used, but suet tried out 
is cheaper and easier digested. Soak suet for a day 


in cold water, changing once or twice to remove 
tallowy taste (cut in small pieces) then put a little 
milk with it and render very slowly, do not stir or 
burn, just loosen from bottom, strain in cups or little 
jars, excellent for all kinds of copking. If lard is 
used, a piece of raw potato fried first will remove the 
strong taste. 

To extract juice from meat, warm it, squeeze it out 

with lemon squeezer or little fruit press and mix with 

milk. If desired, it may be warmed in double boiler 

and seasoned. Tender meats require quick cooking 

jyhile tough meats require long, slow cooking. 

If meat is frozen lay in a warm room over night or 
put in cold water for a few hours. If cooked before 
it is thawed, it will be tough. Never allow frozen 
meat to thaw till just before cooking. Meats lose 
from one-fifth to one-third of their weight in cooking. 
When meat is nicely cooked it is puffy and juicy, but 
when not is solid, dry and leathery. 

Diseased meats — measley pork is dotted with gray- 
ish spots and can be detected with the naked eye. It 
is sometimes used in sausage. 

If meat has a blue tinge it has tape worm parasites. 

If an animal has died of internal or contagious dis- 
ease the flesh should not be used, or if it has been 
killed while suflfering from such. In tubercular beef, 
lungs stick to ribs. The same is true of chicken. In 
turkey diabetic liver is green. 

Fats should be cooked at a low temperature, or 
they will irritate the bowels (where they are digested) 
becoming or containing too much fatty acid glycerine. 
Many suffer from intestinal indigestion as well as 
from dyspepsia, — drowsiness and loss of ambition are 

Chowder is a fish stew. 

Ragout is a high flavored stew and wine added. 


Pot-pie is a stew with an upper crust baked in the 

A braised stew is a sort of an Irish stew baked in 
oven, an oven stew. 

Fricassee is usually chicken, cut in pieces stewed, 
then browned in butter and smothered with a nice 

Sauteing is frying in enough grease to prevent 
sticking and is usually miscalled frying. 

Just a few meats and few suitable accompaniments 
for an occasional Sunday dinner and feast days. Epi- 
cures made a study of these and we use them to our 
advantage : 

Roast beef, Yorkshire pudding, brown gravy or 
tomato sauce. Horseradish, mustard or pickles aid in 
the digestion of beef. 

Roast pork, apple sauce. 

Roast veal, dressing, tomato sauce, spinach. 

Roast lamb, mint sauce, green peas, currant jelly. 

Fricasseed chicken, boiled rice, — stewed chicken 
(whole or not) garnished with hominy (fried) — fried 
chicken, cream gravy. 

Roast turkey, cranberry sauce or currant jelly, 
green peas. 

Roast goose or duck, flavor stuffing with onion and 
celery salt, apple sauce, currant jelly or cranberry 
sauce, green peas. 

Venison, currant jelly. 

Stewed mutton, turnips, tomato sauce. 

Corned Beef, cabbage, cucumber catsup, mustard 
or any tart sauce. 

Liver and bacon, horseradish and fried onions. The 
fresh bacon or new pork is nice with liver. 

Tomatoes are good with nearly all kinds of meat. 

Sweet potatoes are nice with roasts. • ^ 


A fruit or vegetable salad goes well with a heavy- 

Irish potatoes mashed are nice with fowls. 

Garnishes for Platter, parsley, lemon sliced thin, 
beets, cottage cheese, carrots, dumplings (can be used 
as a garnish for stews), fried potatoes (French) or 
potato balls. 


(Use this same rule for other broiled meats, only 
steak takes less time). 

If burning wood in the range, have a good bed of 
live coals. Grease the gridiron or broiler well with 
butter or suet from the steak. Place a thick, tender 
steak upon it and when done on one side, place it upon 
a warmed, buttered platter, without pressing it so 
that the juices will run on the platter; quickly put 
it back on the broiler and cook the other side. If 
steak gets dry, keep putting on melted beef fat or if 
inclined to burn, move it a little away from heat. 
When done, put on the platter again and season with 
butter, pepper and salt and put where it will keep 
warm for a few moments. Heat the plates for serv- 
ing. If five or six tablespoonfuls of hot water are put 
on platter before meat, it makes a fair gravy. Never 
season before cooking. 

Some prefer to sear one side, turn quickly and sear 
the other and turning often till done. Do not stick 
with the fork while turning as it lets the juices out. 

Where the double toaster is used, it is easily turned, 
otherwise a small pair of tongs is better than a fork, — 
cdndy tongs will do. 

Some like a little chopped parsley sprinkled over it 
and some lemon juice dropped here and there. 

After browning, it can be moved just a little from 
the coals so that the center will cook, or, place on 


warm platter and set in oven quickly, if not too hot. 

If broiling underneath the oven of a gas range, 
light the oven about ten minutes before needed. This 
is an excellent method for a very thick steak only it 
requires about twice as much time. The gas can be 
lowered after browning. Plates should be warmed. 

Charcoal is very much used for broiling meats ; a 
handful will broil a pound of steak. 


The secret of frying steak as all other fried foods is 
to have the grease so hot it will sear the outside at 
once, and at the same time seal up the juices. This 
searing makes it so it will not absorb the grease. Have 
plenty oi fat, the more the better; it can be poured 
off and used again if one is careful and not scorch it. 
Brown both sides of steak and move to a cooler part 
of the range to finish. Cover towards the last, to 
thoroughly heat the steak through. Some prefer it 
not covered. Serve on a hot platter and on hot plates. 

After pouring off the grease, pour nearly all the 
gravy over the meat, then add from one-half to one 
cup hot water and stir well while cooking, so as to 
get all the juice from bottom of frying pan, and pour 
this over also. This last may be thickened by adding 
a tablespoonful of flour and a little butter before the 
water, but it is easier digested unthickened, and may 
be poured over the steak or put in the gravy bowl. 
This latter when mixed with the juices from steak 
which run while serving, is called platter gravy and 
is the best kind of gravy. 

(Excellent for invalids) 
Trim off the outside skin and fat. Cut in pieces 
just large enough to serve each person on a piece--^* 


toast. Roll these pieces in flour and brown in butter 
in frying pan. Part of the suet from the steak may be 
rendered in the pan before putting butter in. Pick 
out the stringy pieces. After simply browning both 
sides of the steak, add 3 teacups of boiling water or 
little less to the pound. Move to back of range, cover 
tightly and let siinmer very, very, slowly from one 
and a half to two hours, turning over when about half 
done. Serve on platter of toast or by itself. A little 
more flour may be added to the gravy or a little sweet 
cream. Season just before placing on platter. 

An onion which has been carefully prepared, may 
be browned with it. Very nice served with baked 

If meat is very tough, add a pinch of soda. This is 
a very nourishing and cheap dish and it is delicious. 


(An easier method than the old fashioned one) 

Almost the same as above, only more meat is re- 
quired and left in one chunk and vegetables (onions, 
carrots, etc.) are browned with it. An iron kettle is 
used instead of frying pan. Add peeled potatoes about 
an hour before serving. Simmer about three hours 
after browning. Brown in fat which has been cut off 
the meat. 


Trim ofif considerable of the fat; freshen a little if 
too salt, dry with towel. A few thin or chopped pieces 
of the fat may be spread on top. Broil till a rich 
brown. This method requires a good grade of ham. 
Two sHces ought to serve six people. 


BAKED HAM NO. 1 (Sliced) 

Cut off all the fat and chop in chopping bowl or put 
it through a meat chopper, using the coarsest knife. 
Spread over the slices of lean, adding about a tea- 
spoonful of sugar to sprinkle each slice. Season with 
a little pepper and bake one-half hour in a brisk oven, 

BAKED HAM NO. 2 (With sweet potatoes) 

If family is large, it is well to get a whole ham, if 
not, get what is needed. If very salt, put on in cold 
water and let come to a boil. Add a little soda just 
before changing water, — it seems to clean it. 

Now cover the second time with hot water from 
the tea kettle. Place on back of range and let boil 
very, very slowly from two to four hours, according 
to amount of ham ; it cannot boil too slowly. Take 
up and peel off all the skin. Have some sweet potatoes 
parboiled and skinned. Put in dripping pan and bake 
one to two hours, basting very often. If one has a 
double roaster, all the better. 

The pieces of ham skin can be laid over the potatoes 
for a while. This dish can be made with the shank 
end of ham, costing from 25 to 50 cents. If shank is 
too large the butcher will cut off a slice or two which 
can be kept two or three days for another meal. 


Get the shank end of a ham, a small piece of corned 
beef and a small piece of fresh beef; a pound of each 
will serve six people. 

For each person prepare a small section of cabbage, 
a small piece of carrot or two, a piece of turnip, two 
small onions, or one medium, and two medium sized 
potatoes peeled. Scrape the ham nice and clean or 


clean in hot baking soda water. Have the meats sim- 
mering about two hours before putting in vegetables. 
Allow about one hour and a half for the turnips and 
carrots, all the rest require one hour of moderate 
boiling. A large heavy iron kettle is best. It may be 
all taken up together on large platter, or the potatoes 
may be separated from the rest. 

Nothing but a simple dessert is required with this 


If corn beef is very salty, soak over night in cold 
water, or put over in cold water early in the morning 
and when it comes to a boil, change water, putting the 
second water on hot from the tea kettle, then simmer 
very slowly four to six hours, according to size of 
piece. If to be served cold, take out before putting 
in cabbage and put in a small deep dish, putting some 
of its own liquor around it; let it stand in this till it 
gets cold or all night. If it is all to be used at once, 
cabbage can be cooked with it, but must be cooked 
slowly. It is better to remove beef as cabbage should 
be cooked a little faster. 


To 10 pounds of beef, use saltpetre the size of a 
walnut, 1 tablespoonful brown sugar and a brine of 
rock salt strong enough to bear up an egg. Let brine 
stand for two days and skim before putting it on the 
beef and skim every two or three days after. This 
is for winter use. If weather turns warm, the brine 
can be drained off, scalded and cooled. Return and 
skim as before. The beef is ready for use in ten days. 
Large, well glazed stone jars are best. Ten pound 
pieces are a nice size for cooking. 



One pound Hamburg steak, 1 cup boiled rice, 1 cup 
tomatoes, ^ cup bread crumbs. Season with salt, 
pepper and butter. Mix well and bake in granite bak- 
ing pan, nearly three quarters of an hour, in moderate 
oven. When medium brown on top, it is done. 

Cream of wheat or other food left from breakfast, 
may be added. A little chopped parsley or onion 
browned, adds much to the flavor. Paprika may be 
used instead of pepper. 


Ten cents worth of dried beef will make two meals 
for four. Tear the beef or rather shred or chop it 
fine, taking out the skin and strips of tallow. Place 
in heavy spider, add a good tablespoonful of butter 
and let melt adding 1 tablespoonful of flour. Stir, 
then add slowly 2 to 2^ cups of milk, stirring till 
smooth and thick. Pour over platter of toast. Excellent. 
This may be served without toast, with baked pota- 


The remnants of a boiled ham may be chopped 
coarsely and served the same way as above. 

CREAMED MEAT (Sort of Souffle.) 

An egg beaten separately and about 1}^ or 2 cups of 
chopped meat of any kind, may be added to the 
white sauce for creamed dried beef and baked in the 
oven slowly one hour. Bread crumbs may be added. 


Brown bacon nice and crisp, not burn, fry it slowly. 
Place on platter,, drain off grease all but enough to 


saturate smoothly a good tablespoonful of flour, add 
2 to 2^ cups milk slowly and stir till thick; season 
with pepper and pour over bacon. A little butter may 
be added before creaming. For an invalid, after 
browning the bacon, lay on white paper in the oven 
about two or three minutes, to drain the grease well. 
Serve dry on dry or buttered toast. Half water in- 
stead of milk may be used. This last is an excellent 
garnish for vegetable salad. 


One pound from the neck of beef. Cut in about six 
pieces, brown in butter, add one-half can of peas, two 
medium sized carrots, cut in strips, cover with hot 
water and simmer one and one-half to two hours, and 

IRISH STEW (Delicious. Easy to Make.) 

Two and a half or three pounds of meat will make a 
good dinner for about eight people. Scraps of steak 
or roast beef, carefully trimmed and cut with a pound 
of fresh round steak, or a piece of the neck will do, 
instead of buying all fresh meat. Leave the steak 
bones in till just before thickening, first putting them 
on in cold water^ and when this is just about to boil, 
add the meat, set back and simmer. Much valuable 
nourishment is thus drawn out of the bones. The 
fat and gristle should be removed and meat cut in 
^ to 1 inch cubes. Fry the fat in spider and brown 
the vegetables, cutting the carrots in strips, turnips 
in dice, onions crosswise, three or four times, then 
slice. Put vegetables in about one hour or little bet- 
ter, before serving, slice the potatoes or quarter them, 
and put in about three-fourths of an hour before. If 
dumplings are made, allow about fifteen minutes, 
keeping well covered with cozies. 


Put meat and vegetables in center of platter and 
garnish with the dumplings or half biscuits instead. 

Avoid getting in too many vegetables. Taking all 
together about what would make an individual vege- 
table dish for each one, if vegetables were served 

For supper, the above can be made lighter by serv- 
ing on platter of toast without dumplings. When 
made without dumplings, it needs a little thickening. 
Can be made much simpler and be very good. The 
secret of it is to simmer and not boil. A small hand- 
ful of oatmeal put in when meat is piit over adds to 
the nourishment. 


This can be made with veal alone, chicken or any 
nice meat. It can be also made similar to the Irish 
stew with left over meat, and adding a little fresh 
meat. Meat can be used alone or with a flavoring of 
vegetables. Cut up small and simmer as the Irish 
stew is made, then put in a deep baking dish and 
cover with a biscuit crust, or a mashed potato crust 
rolled out with flour. Bake a rich brown in moderate 
oven. Serve in the baking dish. Veal stew which is 
made by cutting a pound or two of veal into six or 
more pieces makes a good pot pie. 

BAKED MEATS (Miscalled Roasted.) 

A heavy frying pan, an iron kettle, a dripping pan 
or best of all a good double roaster made with two 
covers, the inside part and cover made of a finer ma- 
terial than the outside. Most of them are made with 
a material that is very trying to take care of. It is 
well to clean and dry thoroughly, then grease and 


wrap in newspaper, before putting away. If used 
once or twice a week, this latter is not necessary. The 
temperature of oven must be very high at first, even 
if using double roaster, it is well to set the meat in 
uncovered for ten minutes, to sear the outside. Do 
not salt till nearly time to serve ; salt toughens. A 
little suet can be rendered in pan first or use some 
that has been rendered ; brown the meat all over in it, 
on top of the stove or turn it in the oven for the first 
ten minutes. Some use half a cup of hot water, but 
it is not necessary. A tiny roast can be made on top 
of the gas or range, in the frying pan, by first brown- 
ing, then lower temperature and cover tightly with a 
granite cake tin to fit, turned upside down ; this will 
keep it basted. Put cozies over it. Roast pork is nice 
with an onion cut over it and a little flour. The secret 
of all delicious roasts is plenty of basting and the 
right heat, first high, then moderate. The double 
roasters do their own basting. Two round granite 
pans, one turned upside down to fit, makes a fair im- 
itation for a little roast. 

In making the gravy, add flour before the hot 
water and stir till smooth, trying to get all of the 
good stuff at the bottom of the pan, by making it 
slowly, stirring well from the bottom, season, add a 
little cream or rich milk. The gravy is nice and 
easier to digest without thickening. Simply add a 
little hot water, stirring well. The platter gravy or 
juice that comes from cutting, is the best kind of 

Roast is nice warmed over whole or sliced and laid 
in the gravy and just warmed through. It may all 
be fixed nicely in a baking dish and placed in steamer. 

Dressing for veal may be steamed half an hour or 
more and then baked about twenty minutes, basting 
with the veal dripping that bastes the veal. 



Take any cold roast meat or even boiled, chop it 
fine or put through grinder. Moisten with rich milk 
or cold gravy. Add 1 egg, 1 cup of boiled rice, 
season with salt, pepper, onion or sage. Roll in 
cylinders or patties, dip in egg and bread crumbs, 
and fry a nice brown in deep boiling fat, with wire 
basket, as doughnuts. Rice may be left out. The 
above may be made a little more moist and dropped 
from a spoon on hot griddle and bake as pancakes. 


Take a round or flank steak, spread with your 
favorite stuffing, roll up and tie with grocer's twine. 
Have a dripping pan ready with some hot beef fat. 
Place in oven and baste often. Bake about three- 
fourths of an hour or little less^ or bake in double 
roaster, and prepare fat just the same as for drip- 
ping pan. Make the gravy as for other roasts. A 
thin piece or two of thin pork or bacon is nice, laid 
over the top to flavor and baste it. 


Stew a good, thick rump steak in 1^ cups of 
water, with a bunch of sweet herbs, 1 blade of mace, 
1 onion with 3 cloves stuck in; simmer about two 
hours. Thicken with 1 tablespoonful of flour rtibbed 
in 1 tablespoonful of butter. Add 2 tablespoonfuls 
of lemon juice, either at first or last. Brown the 
meat in butter in frying pan and after putting on 
platter, add the juice to the frying pan and pour 
over the steak. 



Any cold meat can be used for hash and a littlje 
corn beef or ham added, flavors it nicely. Corn beef 
or ham alone or together make a delicious hash. It 
requires almost twice as much potatoes in bulk as 
meat. The meat requires more chopping than the 
potatoes. Moisten well with hot water and rich milk, 
season with salt, pepper and chopped onion. If not 
sufficient potatoes, use chopped bread. A little of 
any vegetable left over, may be used for flavoring, or 
a little of the stuffing from fowls, also the cold gravy. 
Put in hot iron spider and bake about a half hour 
or till a nice brown on top. Serve on a platter of 
toast or if baked, in a nice shallow granite pan, it 
can be served in same. The pressed corn beef may be 
used but not so nice as the home cooked. 


Chop or have butcher put through the grinder, 
2 pounds veal, either from leg, loin or steak, with 2 
thin slices of good bacon or little better. Roll 4 or 
5 crackers (Uneeda Biscuit). Add these to veal with 
1 ^SS'} season with pepper, paprika and very little 
salt. Mix well together and pack into baking powder 
cans. Grease cans and dust with rolled crackers. 
Steam about two hours. Serve on platter with white 
or tomato sauce flavored with the little juice that 
comes from the veal after steaming. The spiced 
pudding can be made and started one hour sooner, or 
more veal can be prepared, it is nice sliced cold. This 
makes two one pound baking powder can loaves. 
Bread crumbs may be used instead of crackers. A 
little milk may be added also, enough to make it 
moist. Warm before putting in steamer with brown 



Two pounds veal steak and a veal shank or soup 
bone. Put the shank over in cold water, when it 
comes to a boil, add the veal steak, let come to a 
boil again, then simmer two hours or more till the 
bone separates from the meat, season with pepper 
and salt. Pick out the best pieces of meat and lay in 
a granite loaf tin, strain liquor over it and set away 
to jell. Some like the juice of a lemon added. 

The part in the strainer and the bones can be put 
with the soup meat, as all the virtue is npt out of 
it. The veal must be washed several times and then 
examine very closely for fear of hair. 


Put in heavy dripping pan and bake in oven till a 
rich brown, turning two or three times, season, make 
gravy after pouring of¥ considerable of the grease. 
Some like a little sage, or chopped onion sprinkled 
over it while baking. 


Simply form meat into patties with knife and palm 
of hand or press into a sort of loaf and slice, or 
press it in the shape of a large pancake, only thicker. 
Brown on both sides with a little onion cut around 
and over it, then move to back and cover or uncover, 
but let stand a few minutes for center to cook. I lace 
on platter and set pan back on fire to brown gravy; 
add a little hot water to gravy and pour over meat. 
Season both before removing from stove. The same 
can be dipped in egg and cracker crumbs. 

Onions may be sliced over top of patties and placed 
in the hot frying pan in which some beef fat has 


been heated and bake in oven fifteen to twenty- 
minutes. . 


This is used for frying but is easier to cook and 
better if prepared as for frying and baked one half 
hour or Httle better, in a double roaster. A delicious 
brown gravy can be made with browned flour and a 
little rich milk or cream added. The pieces of chicken 
may be rolled in flour before baking. 


If chicken is old and tough, put in boiling water 
after cutting as for fried chicken and simmer three 
hours or more. Skim off chicken fat and put in fry- 
ing pan; add a little piece of butter to the chicken 
fat and brown chicken, after ---rolling in flour; place 
on platter and make a gravy with the juice from 
kettle poured over the contents of frying pan which 
has been mixed with flour. Add a little cream or milk 
if desired. Pour over chicken on platter. The 
stewed chicken is very nice without browning, with 
dumplings or little biscuits placed round the edge of 
platter and the gravy thickened and poured over all. 
A small pinch of baking soda added when first put 
over will make it more tender. 


Split it down the back, spread and place on greased 
broiler. Broil and finish by setting in oven a few 
minutes to thoroughly cook. Season. If soaked in 
cold salt water a few minutes, it removes a little of the 
strong, gamey flavor but should be rinsed and wiped 
dry before placing on the broiler. 



Trim off ends neatly, crack the ribs across the 
middle, sprinkle with pepper and salt, stuff with tur- 
key stuffing, sew or tie with grocer's twine rather 
tightly. Bake and baste very often. Browned po- 
tatoes can be cooked with them. If two pieces of 
ribs, one can be fitted to the other so as to hold the 
dressing. Bake very brown. Strain off grease before 
making gravy. Turn once during baking. The ribs 
can be cut finer and baked like spring chicken or 
boiled with cabbage or sauerkraut. They are nice 
salted and cooked with cabbage or rutabagas. 


Slice thin and soak in cold water for an hour. 
Drain and dry on towel; roll in flour and fry a good 
brown. Place on warm platter and pour most of 
grease from frying pan, add a tablespoonful or more 
of flour, stir well in remaining grease, add 2 cups of 
new milk (fresh), stir till smooth, let boil up and 
pour over pork. Nice served on toast or with baked 
potatoes for breakfast or luncheon. Either pork or 
bacon is nice fried and served with fried circles of 
apples without peeling, cut nearly one-half inch thick. 


Take a little pig six weeks old, dress nicely and 
score or gash in squares, with a knife ; stuff with 
turkey stuffing and sew up neatly. Place on knees 
in pan; baste very often and turn once so that both 
sides bake even. Have pan hot with some tried-out 
dripping as for other roasts. Some stuff with salted 
corn meal scalded, rubbed smooth and baked, then 
broken and seasoned with butter, pepper, salt and 


onion or sage. Put a piece of red pepper in the pan 
with the pig. 


Let ham simmer a few minutes in boiling water, 
brown in a greased hot frying pan. Fry eggs in the 
hot ham grease, basting with the gravy. Do not 
turn. Place on top of ham pieces; add about one- 
half cup or more of boiling water to the gravy and 
pour over all. Delicious. 

Another way is to brown ham first, then pour over 
it one-half cup of hot water, cover and let simmer 
about fifteen minutes. If eggs are used they must be 
fried in another pan in some of the ham fat. 


Serve the same as ham and eggs, only fry it very 
slowly so as not to blacken, and do not simmer, 


Most any of the fried meats may be smothered 
with onions. Follow rules for fried onions, adding 
to them the gravy from meat. Steak is especially 
good this way. 


Following the principles of stewing meats and add 
5^ can or more of tomatoes about a half hour before 
serving. Thicken and season. Neck of mutton is 
good. It may be cut in chunks small enough to serve. 


Dip in boiling water for just a second, then put into 
fried cake kettle which is ready with a goodly amount 
of hot dripping (bacon preferred). Put cover on and 


fry slowly for about fifteen minutes or till brown. A 
deep iron spider will do. Put on platter and pour 
gravy over with or without thickening. Another 
method is to soak in cold water one hour, dry, dip in 
melted dripping and broil slowly. 


Thoroughly clean and trim pigs' feet, parboil, skim- 
ming once or twice ;' throw this first water away. Pour 
plenty of boiling water over and let simmer three or 
four hours with very little salt. Take out and pack 
in jar with vinegar, pepper and salt. They may be 
served cold or hot by heating in a little fresh vinegar. 

Another way is to remove bones (and skins also if 
one wishes) pack meat in granite loaf tins or jars. 
Then pour over them a little of the liquor boiled with 
vinegar, sugar and spices. To 1 loaf (1 pound tin 
size) use about 1 pint of vinegar, Yz cup of sugar. 
Put in a little white cloth bag, one teaspoonful each 
of cinnamon, cloves and allspice. Let spices, vinegar 
and sugar boil about fifteen minutes before adding to 
liquor, then boil all together, two or three minutes. 
Taste and if too weak, add more vinegar; if too 
strong, add more of the liquor. Better a little too 
strong as the meat takes much of the vinegar. Pour 
over meat and keep in a warm place for an hour or 
so, as it jells so quickly the meat does not get time 
to absorb the dressing. Slice cold as any cold meat 


Having well cleaned a pig's head, split it in two, 
take out the eyes and the brain. Clean the ears or 
trim part away. Throw scalding water over outside 


and scrape very thoroughly, cutting off what can't be 
cleaned. The end of the nose can be thrown away. 
Let boil very slowly till the meat loosens from the 
bones. Take out with a skimmer and put in chopping 
bowl, pick out bones, chop, season with pepper and 
salt and pack in jar or pan (loaf granite). Slice cold 
as meat doaf. A little vinegar may be added if de- 
sired. Another method is to take meat after it is 
chopped and mix with it corn meal which has been 
steamed in double boiler at least one hour. This can 
be warmed and serve as hash with toast for break- 
fast. This last is called scrapple. 


Ten pounds of meat, about 2^^ quarts when chop- 
ped (fresh pork), fat and lean just as it is, and the 
fatter the better; remove stringy parts, cut small then 
chop fine or put through meat grinder; 5 tablespoon- 
fuls of sage (rounding), 4 tablespoonfuls of salt, 3 
tablespoonfuls of pepper, the salt and pepper not 
rounding but not even. 

To cook — Make in thin patties, fry or bake brown 
and then set on toaster or perforated bottom in drip- 
ping pan in oven. One can drain on white paper in 
oven, but a waste of grease. 


Put on in cold water, let come to a boil, then sim- 
mer slowly several hours. If put on after breakfast, 
it may be stuffed and baked for supper. Bake about 
three-fourths of an hour; it may be simmered one 
day and baked the next. Veal heart will simmer 
tender in two hours. Having stuffing well seasoned. 



Either the noon before or the night before, soak in 
cold water enough to cover, with a handful of salt, that 
is after dressing nicely. If soaked at noon then after 
supper drain and wipe with clean white cloths. Stuff 
with your favorite stuffing, usually flavored with 
onion, and sew neatly. If stuffed at night the flavor- 
ing seems to be more even, otherwise it can be soaked 
all night and stuffed in the morning. Put in a roaster 
and with it a whole lemon unpeeled. If a double 
roaster, it needs no more attention till about one-half 
hour before it is done when the lemon should be 
pricked with a toothpick and baste with one-half cup 
of hot water if not sufficient gravy. If double roaster, 
turn once, that is, turn the roaster, end for end. If 
not, baste the fowl several times, turning three or four 
times. Serve with green peas and apple sauce. 



One cannot afford to do without these, as they are 
economical and add so much to any dish — they make 
things go further. 

It takes half as much cornstarch as flour to thicken 
anything. Flour should be cooked at least four or 
five minutes and cornstarch longer by steaming after 
thickening, either in double boiler or cover tightly 
on back of stove. For brown gravy and platter gravy, 
see roasts and fried steaks. A very nice fish sauce is 
given after salmon loaf. 

White sauce and drawn butter sauce are founda- 
tions for many other sauces. It is always well to 
rinse out frying pan with very hot water before mak- 
ing any sauce. 


(May be called Milk or Cream Gravy) 

One tablespoonful butter,- 1 of flour, 2 cups of milk, 
salt and pepper. Melt butter over slow fire, mix with 
flour, add milk slowly, stir till thick and set on back 
of stove for four or five minutes to steam, with cover 
on. Season just before serving. 


One tablespoonful flour, 1 of butter. Melt in Iron 
frying pan. Add 2 cups of hot water, stirring till 
smooth and thick; season. One cup of stock or all 


stock may be used instead of hot water. Bean stock 
may also be used. Serve with vegetables or meat. 

Add a tablespoonful or two of chopped sour pickle 
or vinegar or lemon juice or catsup of any kind, and 
one has a simple gravy for fish. 

Two hard boiled eggs added to this foundation, 
makes a fine egg sauce. One teaspoonful of curry 
powder for curry sauce. 

The above foundation sweetened and flavored, 
makes an excellent sweet sauce. 


Simmer 2 cups of tomatoes with browned onion, a 
teaspoonful or two of herbs if liked, salt and pepper. 
Add to it either a little of the drawn butter or white 
sauce. Two or three tablespoonfuls of catsup in which 
is a tiny pinch of soda added to white sauce with 
browned onion, or added without soda to drawn but- 
ter, makes a good tomato sauce. 


Two tablespoonfuls green mint (spear mint) chop- 
ped. Add pinch of salt, 1 tablespoonful sugar and 
y^ cup of vinegar. Mix, let stand one to two hours. 
Strain into a bottle and cork, or into a vinegar cruet 
with glass stopper. Some do not chop, but simply 
put the mint in a bottle with the sugar and vinegar. 

HOLLANDAISE SAUCE (This is nice for fish) 

One-fourth cup of butter, yolks of 2 eggs, juice of 
half a lemon, 1 saltspoonful salt, ^ saltspoonful of 
cayenne pepper, 5^ cup of boiling water. 

Rub butter to a cream, add yolk, one at a time and 
beat well. Add lemon juice, salt and pepper. About 


five minutes before serving, add boiling water. Place 
bowl in double boiler. Stir rapidly until like boiled 
custard. Pour around meat or fish. 


Anything put inside is called stuffing; outside is 
called dressing. Dry dressing is more digestible than 
wet dressing. 

Break homemade bread up into tiny pieces in the 
chopping bowl. Shake over it a little chopped pars- 
ley, a little sage and onion if desired, 4 tablespoonfuls 
of butter melted, 4 tablespoonfuls cream, 1 or 2 beaten 
eggs, season with salt and paprika. Mix well together 
and stuff fowl. For turkey use eight tablespoonfuls 
melted butter or four of the big cooking -spoon. 


Soak bread in milk or water, squeeze lightly, add 2 
or 3 baked potatoes mashed, 1 cup currants, chopped 
onion, sage, pepper, salt and melted butter; a little 
cream improves it. 


If one has plenty of eggs it is easy to make nice 
dumplings, but if not a very good recipe is ^ tea- 
spoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of sugar, ^ cup of 
milk, 1 egg and 1 cup of flour sifted with 1 teaspoon- 
ful of baking powder. Mix well. A teaspoonful of 
butter and a little more milk if one has to do without 
an egg. Dredge dessert spoon with flour and drop 
around the top of stew or in boiling salted vv'^ater. 
Cozy and simmer for ten or fifteen minutes. If cover 
is removed before done, they will fall. They must 
not be made until fifteen minutes before serving as 


standing makes them soggy. They are good made 
on top of peeled boiled potatoes about fifteen minutes 
before they are done and "cozied." These are of the 
consistency of good stiff cake batter or stififer. A little 
more flour may be added and sort of separated in 
little balls, then steam in steamer one-half to three- 
fourths of an hour. Put a piece of mellow apple in 
center of each one and serve with nutmeg sauce for 
dessert. Some are very successful by adding beaten 
egg and flour to mashed potato and drop in goodly 
salted water. Mix so they hold well together and 
drop with dessert spoon. 

YORKSHIRE PUDDING (See Chapter on Bread) 

Wet flour, slightly salted, with egg until of the 
consistency of pie crust — then roll rather thin. Let 
stand either on bread board or clean floured newspaper 
in warm room for an hour or so. Roll like rolled jelly 
cake and slice. Shake out a little and use for soups, 
stews, etc. 



Many people have the "drug habit" as the enormous 
sale of patent medicines and drug preparations well 
proves. It is better to take medicines in vegetable 
foods than to be swallowing drugs, many of them 

List of the most common vegetable medicines 

f Turnips, f French Beans, 

I Onions, I Lentils, 

Cabbage, _ Watercress, 

j cress ( Phosphate, etc. j cious of 

Sulphur -^ Cauliflower, Iron -{ Spinach 

I Water- j Oil, Iron, j (most pre- 

l^ Horseradish, (^ vegetables). 

{Potato (especially near the 
skin and in the skin), 
Spinach. _ 

Most of the vegetables contain nearly all these med- 
icines, but a greater percentage of each one is found 
in each vegetable thus tabulated. If one's system 
lacks a certain medicine they can select from the 
above. This is only a small outline of the most com- 
mon. All kinds of foods are composed of water, 
proteids, fat, starch, cellulose and ash. Each and 
all of these have their uses, even cellulose, though 
of no food value gives the bowels exercise or they 
would become weakened so they couldn't digest. 

Spinach has iron and narcotic properties. If an in- 
valid can have vegetables at all he can have spinach. 

Cabbage, cauliflower and spinach are beneficial to 
anemic people. 


Tomatoes stimulate the healthy action of the liver. 

Asparagus benefits the kidneys. 

Celery is good for rheumatism, neuralgia and quiets 
the nerves. 

Beets and turnips purify the blood and improve the 
appetite, ^ 

Lettuce is excellent for tired nerves. Lettuce should 
be planted in rich ground, in a partly shaded place 
as too much sun makes it bitter and tough. Pick 
early in the morning. Simply break ofif as roots come 
up again, for market, pick roots and all. 

Parsley, mustard, cowslip, dandelion, dock and beet 
tops clear the blood, regulate the system and remove 
that tired feeling so peculiar to spring. 

Winter vegetables are potatoes, beets, carrots, 
squash, celery, cabbage, turnips, beans, dried peas and 
onions. Some leave parsnips in the ground till spring. 

Cellar for vegetables must be cold, dry and sanitary. 
A root cellar would be better built away from the 
house as it causes bad odor through the house. 


All vegetables except dry vegetables, should be 
cooked in plenty of hot, salted water, in the propor- 
tion of about 1 teaspoonful of salt to a quart of water. 

Soft water is best or sterile water is better still, but 
not necessary. 

All carbohydrates should be cooked by long cooking. 

Vegetables should be simmered not boiled. Hard 
boiling destroys their nutrition. 

Try to keep the flavor in vegetables by keeping 
them covered except onions and cabbage, the steam 
of which goes back into the water again and makes 
odor bad. 


Carrots should be cooked one to one and a half 
hours. Winter carrots take longer than those just 
pulled and should be cut smaller. 

The fresher all vegetables are, the more wholesome. 

To correct the toughness of some vegetables in 
cooking, add a little baking soda or parboil in soda 
water, then change for fresh water which is boiling. 

Beans and peas are very easily digested in the green 
state, while in the dried, are more difficult, the proteid 
being of the caseine group, not like the gluten. 

To clear vegetables of insects or germiS, especially 
lettuce or celery soak for a little while in strong salt 
water, or wash in salt water and then soak in very 
cold water from one-half hour to two hours if de- 

Tomatoes contain calomel. 

Too much starch at one meal should be avoided, as 
potatoes, rice, etc. 

Nothing adds more to the delicate flavor and di- 
gestibility of almost any vegetable than parboiling 
and throwing away the first water. Potato soup is 
much improved by this method and it is indispensible 
in preparing onions. Even potatoes are improved. 

Corn for invalids should be put through a sieve, as 
it contains a great deal of cellulose which they cannot 
digest. For the same reason they -should have but 
little parsley. 

A scalloped dish is an ingredient prepared with a 
white sauce, (milk or cream gravy), and bread or 
cracker crumbs, then browned in the oven. 

Grated cheese is often a nice flavor, for scalloped 
dishes, especially for egg plant and potatoes. 

Foundation of souffle is white sauce. Should be 
served as soon as baked because it is light and will 
fall if it stands. 

The salts of potash about the skin of potato is good 


to build up hair, teeth and nails, also keep the bowels 

The tapeworm germs are found on lettuce, water- 
cress and celery, hence these should be carefully 
washed in salt water, then put in cold water. Sterile 
water is best for all purposes, but requires far more 
time and labor, hence more expensive. 

Vegetables can be made crisp by putting them in 
cold water. 

Lettuce is good for invalids if permitted to have 

Always avoid coagulating albumen in cooking all 

Cook macaroni in salted water twenty minutes, 
then drain and wash in cold water before following" 
any recipe for its preparation. This rule also improves 

New potatoes are best baked; old potatoes boiled; 
old potatoes should be peeled and stand over night in 
cold water. Water on them ought to be changed be- 
fore retiring and early in the morning. It is well to 
soak them before peeling. 

Green corn and peas should not be prepared till 
ready to cook. 

Old potatoes and egg plant should be put on in 
salted water, cold. 

Do not allow vegetables to remain in the water 
after they are -cooked. 

A little baking soda added to the water in which 
greens are cooked, preserves the color. The French 
usually use a pinch of carbonate of ammonia. They 
are better without either except where soda is needed 
to relieve toughness. 

A very small piece of red pepper dropped into 
meat or vegetables, when first beginning to cook, will 


help in killing the unpleasant odor, especially cabbage, 
onions, mutton and chicken. 

Vegetables when cooked with salt meat, ought not 
to be put in till the meat is removed, or better still, 
some of the juice can be removed to a separate kettle 
for the vegetables. 

Some varieties of potatoes that are not good in the 
fall, are excellent in the spring, and vice versa. 

Beans and peas contain a small percentage of fats, 
therefore pork, butter or some fat is necessary to 
cook with them; very rich in proteids and starch. 


Soak potatoes for an hour or more in cold water 
after choosing those of equal size. It is well to peel 
a little of the skin off each end to allow the salt 
to penetrate while boiling. Use about a tablespoon- 
ful of salt to a gallon of water. Water may be either 
cold or boiling, it depends on age of potatoes. Old 
potatoes are better cooked in cold water but. water 
must cover the potatoes. Use rather a heavy kettle — 
iron is best as it keeps temperature more even than 
light weight kettles. 

Do not boil too hard as the outside of potato will 
crumble, nor too slow as then the potatoes will be 
watery. Boil till nearly done, then drain and cover 
lightly; place where they will steam till thoroughly 
done, but not burn, then remove cover, shake a lit- 
tle and let steam evaporate, making the potatoes dry 
and mealy. Never let them stand in water after they 
are done. Potatoes should be served immediately. 


It is well to soak the potatoes new or old in cold 
water before peeling. Old potatoes can be soaked 
twenty-four hours and better peeled the night before 



using, changing water two or three times on them. 
An hour or two is sufficient to soak new potatoes. 
Peel very thin as the best part of potatoes is near the 
skin. Boil as in above recipe, only while steaming 
they may be shook once or twice, with cover off to 
dry them out. Medium sized potatoes should take 
about thirty-five minutes to cook and with jackets on, 
a little longer. The fifteen and twenty minutes boil- 
ing that some boast of is a great waste. Object of 
steaming is to cook the starch more thoroughly and 
aid digestion. They are much improved by boiling 
in two waters having the second boiling when put on. 
The first boiling requires only ten minutes. Green 
corn may be put in the steamer and steamed over 
them in the same kettle, both requiring the same time 
to cook. 


Boil, steam and dry out potatoes in their jackets as 
in first recipe, then peel very quickly and put in a hot 
kettle or earthen dish heated. Add milk and let come 
to a boil, also a little butter, pepper and salt. Mash 
with an old-fashioned wooden potato masher and beat 
a little with a large spoon. When ready to serve, place 
them lightly in the dish. Mashed potatoes should never 
be packed, but made light as possible, 


Follow directions for Boiled Potatoes, peeled, then 
mash and season as in the above recipe. 


Take mashed potatoes that are left over and pack 
into a loaf tin, or better, a loaf granite pan and let 
stand over night, or from noon till night; turn out on 


board, slice and fry in hot frying pan with as little 
grease as will prevent sticking, until they are a nice 
brown; turn carefully with pancake turner or broad 
bladed knife or the brown crust will break away. 
Serve on a hot platter. These can also be molded into 
balls while still warm and set away for next meal. 


Soak potatoes in cold water; peel and cut in dice 
shape or any neat form ; let stand in cold water for a 
while before cooking, drain and put in boiling salted 
water if potatoes are new or cold salted water if po- 
tatoes are old. Boil till almost tender, drain well and 
cover with scalded milk, then add butter and flour 
rubbed together in the proportion of a heaping tea- 
spoonful or more of each to a cup of milk. If pre- 
pared in a. heavy iron spider, the butter and flour may 
be cooked together, and add the milk cold; when it 
comes to a boil, add the potatoes and lower the tem- 
perature after mixing lightly and well, then cover 
tightly and let steam from five to fifteen minutes. If 
a heavy spider or kettle is not at hand, use a double 
boiler for the creaming which will take nearly a half 


A heavy iron spider is best for these. They may be 
prepared with or without flour. If prepared with flour, 
use about the same proportion as in preceding recipe. 
Cooking flour and butter a little first, then adding 
milk, and whether with flour or without, let the milk 
come to a boil before adding potatoes which have 
previously been peeled and cut. Stir lightly and well 
for a few minutes, then cover and let steam a few 
minutes longer. Flavor with salt, pepper, parsley 
chopped or a few cooked onions which have been left 


over. They are nice without any flavoring except 
salt. Cold baked potatoes are delicious prepared this 
way. Cold potatoes in their jackets or even baked 
potatoes, are better if not peeled till it is time to pre- 
pare them. 


One cup of white sauce, 1 tablespoonful melted but- 
ter, 1/2 cup of break crumbs, 5 potatoes, medium size, 
1 tablespoonful of grated cheese if desired. 

Place potatoes cut fine in layers, alternating first, 
bread crumbs, then potatoes, then sauce, and so on 
till dish is full. Put melted butter over top and bake 
till brown in oven. Bread crumbs or a little grated 
cheese on top is an improvement. A deep granite 
pan is preferable. This recipe is about enough for 
three people. These are very nice if potatoes are first 
parboiled in jackets ; flavor as desired. Cauliflower is 
very good escalloped with a little cheese in the same 


The best way to prepare potatoes is to bake them, 
especially for the sick. Soak potatoes for an hour or 
two in cold water; if potatoes are old soak over night. 
Prick (almost through) with a fork, before putting in 
the oven or when about half done ; this makes them 
mealy. When shriveled, are overdone. Oven must 
be hot. One-half to three-quarters of an hour for 
medium sized potatoes. 


These are very nice for the sick. Bake as in the 
above recipe. When baked, take off top or cut in 
two, scrape out, mash with a little butter, milk 
(cream) and salt, put back in the shell and brown in 
the oven. Delicious. 



It takes about twenty-five minutes, all told, to fry 
potatoes properly. The most important point is to 
have the grease hot before putting in potatoes, or 
they will absorb the grease and be very indigestible. 
Lard, butter, equal parts of lard (hardest to digest), 
and butter or drippings may be used as desired. Fry 
ten to fifteen minutes, turning about every three 
minutes. ChCip with a baking powder can. Lower 
temperature and flavor, then cover lightly and steam 
ten to fifteen minutes. These may be first .chopped 
fine, grease heated well and baked in the oven fifteen 
to twenty minutes. An iron spider or dripping pan of 
heavy material is best. 

Lyonnaise potatoes are the same, only brown an 
onion before putting in potatoes and leave the po- 
tatoes cut coarser. Brown nicely and sprinkle with 
parsley or shredded lettuce. 


These with steamed veal loaf, are excellent for Sun- 
day dinner. They can be put in the steamer, either 
peeled or in their jackets around the B. P. cans 
(should be clean on outside), well covered and 
"cozied" before going to church and dinner will be 
ready when you return. Leave plenty of hot water 
under the steamer and turn the gas low, but not as 
low as for all night cooking. The cozies will do the 
cooking. The juice from veal loaf can be added to a 
white sauce or tomato gravy. 


Peel the potatoes and slice rather thin, with a po- 
tato slicer, into cold water; change water and let 


Stand two hours. If wanted for breakfast, change 
water the last thing at night and the first thing in the 
morning or they will turn dark. Drain through a 
colander and let drip a few minutes. Have lard very 
hot and a little more than for cooked fried potatoes. 
Pour in potatoes from colander and stir every two or 
three minutes for about fifteen minutes or until po- 
tatoes are browned considerable. Flavor with salt 
and pepper, then cover tightly and put on back of 
range to steam or cook very slowly for fifteen minutes 


Peel and quarter the potatoes lengthwise. If large, 
cut in eighths. After rinsing well in cold water, soak 
in salt water for one-half hour, then drain and dry on 
a towel. Fry in deep fat either in a wire basket or 
float them in the grease and drain in a wire basket 
after, or on a piece of paper without print. Fry till 
good and brown, turn while frying. The fat must be 
scalding hot when potatoes are put in. Very nice 
served with steak. They are very nice fried with only 
two or three tablespoonfuls of the steak drippings. A 
shallow iron kettle or heavy iron spider is best. Sara- 
toga chips are made nearly the same only slice thin 
and drain on a towel. Fry in deeper fat. Should be 
soaked about fifteen minutes in salt water, or sprinkle 
with salt after frying. 


Take potatoes either raw or cooked and sliced one- 
quarter inch thick, and put only one layer in the 
spider at a time ; fry till brown and then turn as pan- 
cakes and brown on other side ; season. 



Peel and soak potatoes, either whole or halved, in 
clear cold water, then put for about a half hour in salt 
water. Drain and put around roast beef or other kind 
of meat will do, about one and a half hours before 
meat is done. If one has not a double roaster, then 
baste very often — about every ten or fifteen minutes 
or they will not be tender and brown. They may be 
rolled in flour or flour sprinkled on them after putting 
in pan, only remember to turn or lift out carefully 
with a broad bladed knife, or the nice brown coat will 
come off. Another method is to parboil them in their 
jackets, peel and then put around roast. 

(German Style) 

Peel and boil potatoes in salt water. Drain and 
while hot, throw over them sliced cabbage, raw. Mash 
both together (the cabbage only mixes through), sea- 
son and put in serving dish. Pour over it a thin 
drawn butter or milk gravy or rather half thick. 


Boil potatoes in jackets. When cold, slice or dice 
one medium sized onion cut fine, season with salt and 
pepper. Pour over them two or three tablespoonfuls 
of vinegar. Brown two or three slices of bacon, cut 
up fine and pour over all the hot bacon grease. Mix 
lightly and warm in oven; serve. Nice for luncheon- 
or for dinner served with steak. 


May be prepared after any of the rules of white po- 
tatoes. They are excellent parboiled, peeled and 
browned with baked ham. Recipe given with Baked 


Ham, Save what is left over for croquettes and sweet 
potato pie. 


Put one quart or four cups of beans over in cold 
water. When they come to a boil, add one-half tea- 
spoonful of baking soda and let boil five minutes. 
Then drain through colander, pour back in kettle and 
cover with boiling water; boil slowly for ten minutes. 
Drain and put boiling water on again and boil ten 
minutes. Drain for the third time. Put in a crock 
or heavy dish and pour boiling water on again, cov- 
ering well. Season with a very little salt, one-half 
pound salt pork cut in slices and spread over the top, 
turning the pieces over once or twice while baking, or 
cut the whole piece through to the rind ; two table- 
spoonfuls of molasses or brown sugar. Bake slowly 
from three to twelve hours, covered, adding boiling 
water occasionally, if they get too dry. Towards the 
last do not add water but let them get dry nearly to 
the bot'tom, removing cover the last hour. If there is 
a fire in range, these can be left in the oven over night, 
and also second day, and baked twelve hours more. 
They stay whole, very few break. When baked for a 
long time they are called Boston Baked. Where the 
family is small half of these and part of the liquor 
may be made into soup for the previous meal. 


Soak a quart of beans in plenty of water over night. 
In the morning wash them out of that water and 
cover well with cold water; set on the stove and when 
they come to a boil, put in about one-half teaspoon- 
ful of soda; let boil moderately about five minutes. 
Drain through a colander or if using a cover with a 


strainer made in it, simply drain. Then cover well 
with boiling water and put in one-half pound of pork 
which has been scraped clean and sliced through to 
the rind. Let boil moderately about a half hour or a 
little better. Put in a crock or one of those dark 
stone ware dishes are very nice. Put in two table- 
spoonfuls of molasses or brown sugar or a tablespoon- 
ful of each, one teaspoonful of dry mustard and a little 
salt. Let them bake rather slowly two or three hours, 
longer does not hurt them. Have plenty of water on 
them and stir the brown ones down from the top two 
or three times. When done they should be dry almost 
to the bottom yet moist and mealy. The beans will 
not all be whole. While mustard gives them a de- 
licious flavor, people suffering from weak stomachs or 
the effects of too much indoor work, had better omit 
it. Very nourishing and a cheap dish. Some call 
these Yankee Baked. 

STEWED BEANS (String or Wax) 

In the early summer when those delicious wax or 
string beans are very high priced, you can make be- 
lieve you have them by following recipe No, 1 for 
baked beans as far as baking them, that is stew them 
in the fourth water very slowly, two or three hours. 
Before putting them in the last v/ater, parboil the 
string beans about ten minutes in water with a little 
baking soda, having beforehand prepared them neatly 
by stringing and cutting in about one inch lengths. 
Drain off water through colander or strainer cover 
and add to the other beans, when put in the last 
water and let both simmer together. The string beans 
flavor the others a great deal and the whole makes a 
fair substitute for the real dish. Flavor with drip- 
pings, lard or butter as one can afford, about one 
teaspoonful or more of salt and a very little pepper. 



Both peas and beans and in fact all vegetables or 
rather all cooking is better with soft water. 

Can be cooked as either recipe for baked beans. 
Either peas or beans are nice stewed slowly and 
browned in the oven. 

Either one makes nice soup. (See chapter on soups.) 
Beans stewed and strained, make good soup stock ; the 
liquor only; do not mash through colander. 


These can be sliced and boiled in the juice of salt 
meat, either with the meat or after it has been re- 
moved. They may be boiled and mashed as mashed 
potatoes and the left overs can be made into patties or 
croquettes, similar to potatoes. Season nicely. They 
are nice cut into dice or slices boiled in salted water, 
drained and creamed or other gravies can be used, 
poured over them. If boiled in two waters the last 
need not all be drained off, if milk and stock are scarce 
for making gravy. When two or more waters are 
used, it is always well to have the teakettle of hot 
water ready for the changing. Any of these are nice 
if the last boiling is done with half milk and hot water 
in the double boiler, then just thicken and season. 
Flour rubbed into butter is the easiest way of thicken- 
ing. Carrots are especially nice this way ; also onions 
and cabbage. 


Excellent for salad. (See chapter on salads.) They 
are very good plain boiled and eaten with a little vine- 
gar, pepper and salt. After standing a day or so in 
vinegar, they make nice pickles, sliced or cut in dice. 
The young beets in early summer time make excellent 


greens cooked whole like spinach or with meat. Be- 
fore boiling they should be washed carefully so as not 
to break the skin or the fine roots as this will bleed 
and spoil them. Winter beets should be soaked over 
night. Put all beets on in boiling water and let boil 
slowly from one and a half hours to four hours. Test 
with a toothpick. Use "cozies" over and around them. 


This is an excellent way when one has not enough 
of one kind for a meal. A variety of dishes can be 
made by mixing two vegetables. More than two 
kinds are inclined to be sloppy with a few exceptions 
of good combinations. Green corn and dried beans 
(succotash). Scald the corn enough to set the milk 
before cutting from the cob or use canned corn. Don't 
put the corn in till almost ready to serve. Excellent 
method is to remove from fire and use cozy, letting it 
steam fifteen minutes. 

Green corn and tomatoes. One or two onions cut 
up and added to cabbage. Potatoes and turnips 
mashed together. A few carrots with potatoes, about 
one part to three. Carrots with green peas in the same 
proportion. Any of these combinations can be flavored 
with onion. All are delicious if the proper method for 
cooking is followed, 


Parboil ten minutes with a pinch of soda, strain and 
put boiling water over them, well covered. Let sim- 
mer two and a half to three hours or more. Season 
and serve. Some add a cup of rich milk or 2 or 3 
tablespoonfuls of vinegar and thicken. When they 
get old they can be shelled and cooked like lima 


beans, using the same method as above, only they 
don't require simmering quite so long. Sort of mock 
Lima Beans. 


If small, they will simmer nicely in about a half 
hour. When they get old and tough, an excellent 
method is to simmer till tender, drain and mash 
through a colander or sieve. Add a little warm milk 
or cream, and fix the same as mashed potatoes. Some 
boil them in half milk and water. The double boiler 
is best for this method. This is called a puree. Beans 
can be prepared the same. 


The methods of preparing onions are almost innum- 
erable, but no matter what recipe one may follow or 
even using for flavoring or serving on the table cold, it 
is always wise to soak them for two hours iu cold 
water, then change and put over the fire in another 
cold water and let get quite warm but not boil. Drain 
and follow any recipe. I have never found this meth- 
od to disagree with a patient and even those whose 
stomachs are sensitive to onions, can use them with- 
out distress. For a patient, if doctor permits vege- 
tables, they can have them sliced and creamed, es- 
calloped or baked, and to flavor other dishes. Very 
good for most kidney troubles. Peel under water if 
eyes are tender. 


Either slice or leave whole, and after soaking in cold 
water, put on and simmer in hot salted water from 
one-half hour to an hour, the whole requiring longer 
than the sliced. Drain and pour over them a hot milk 
gravy, or after parboiling for ten or fifteen minutes. 


drain and put over again in half hot milk and water, 
season and thicken when done. Again the double 
boiler is fine for this last method. The last need not 
be thickened but just seasoned and served as boiled 
onions. The milk may be omitted. 


After following first two principles given under 
"Onions," using the whole onions, boil a half hour or 
more till tender; drain, lay side by side in a pudding 
dish, season and cover with a white sauce. Sprinkle 
with bread crumbs and bits of butter, cover and bake 
twenty minutes. Remove cover and brown. Serve in 
dish in which they are baked. 


Nearly the same as above only before putting in the 
oven, remove the hearts carefully and stuff with a nice 
stuffing of chopped meat and bread crumbs or some 
left overs. 


These can be made in different ways. Remember 
the first principle (soaking). Boil slowly for half an 
hour or better in water slightly salted. Drain and 
cut up fine. Grease a pudding dish — put layer of 
onions, then bread crumbs, season with bits of butter, 
pepper and salt (slight) and so on till full, then pour 
in hot milk. Cover and bake twenty-five to thirty 
minutes. Uncover, brown and serve in same dish. 
The onions can be cut fine before boiling. 

Another method is to use a layer of the boiled 
onions, then bread crumbs and a thin white sauce; 
season and repeat till dish is full, and bake. Left 
over onions can be used up this way. 



Put over in boiling salted water and let boil only five 
minutes after they start to boil, or put over in boiling 
water, cover well with cozies and remove from fire; 
let stand fifteen minutes. Must have plenty of water. 


Add about 2 cups of milk to a can of corn which 
should be removed from can as soon as opened. Warm 
slightly. Take a layer of this, then a layer of nice 
crisp fresh cracker crumbs; season and repeat till 
about three layers in all. Bake till a nice brown. It 
rises considerable. Serve in same dish at once. Use 
a little sugar if the corn does not seem sweet enough. 
Delicious for an invalid, but rub the corn through a 
sieve so as to remove the cellulose. A small individ- 
ual dish can be made separately or instead of layers, 
add a little beaten egg unless eggs are forbidden by 
physicians as in case of inflammatory rheumatism. 


These can be creamed like creamed onions. They 
may be boiled with salted meat, browning in the 
spider or in a dripping pan in the oven, adds to their 
flavor after cooking with meat. Some like to sprinkle 
cinnamon over them. 

Parboil in salt water and fry is another method. 


Baked, mashed and flavored with a little sugar, salt 
and pepper. Easier broken with the ax than to try 
to cut with a knife. 

Steamed and prepared the same. Leave outside 
shell on for both methods. Bake and serve nice and 


brown on a platter from the oven. A bowl of white 
sauce or other gravy, will save the butter. 


Outside stalks are good for soup. It may be cut in 
small pieces, boiled till tender in salted water; drained 
and served with a tomato sauce poured over it, or 
other sauces. (See chapter on gravies.) 


Simmer asparagus tips in salted water till tender. 
Drain and lay on slices of toast and pour over all a 
white sauce, or put asparagus into the white sauce and 
pour all over the toast. 

Another way is just put on a little butter, salt and 
pepper with 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of hot water and ar- 
range neatly on the toast. 

It is excellent served as a vegetable with white or 
drawn butter sauce. It should be parboiled and the 
first water thrown away. The tips may be laid in the 
colander and steamed over the other part as they are 
very tender and don't need so much cooking. Then 
all can be put together when preparing after cooking.- 


After preparing macaroni by boiling twenty minutes 
in salted water and rinsed with cold water, put a 
layer in a baking dish or deep granite pan and sprinkle 
well with grated cheese or cheese shaved in small 
pieces. Dot with bits of butter or oleomargarine (a 
good grade) and flavor with a very little pepper and 
salt. Continue alternate layers until dish is full then 
pour in, carefully, so as not to disturb butter on top, 
milk which has been warmed in a small double boiler 


— not enough to entirely cover the macaroni but about 
two-thirds — cover and bake one-half to three-quarters 
of an hour, according to size of dish and amount used; 
uncover toward the last and brown. Cracker crumbs 
may be sprinkled on top. Some add a beaten egg to 
the milk; then use less butter. The French use part of 
this first water to be thrown away in making their 


This is prepared exactly as above except that a little 
red pepper or paprika is used for flavoring, and warm 
the tomatoes. About a half quart can, or little more, of 
tomatoes to a quart baking dish. When not to be 
used for a lenten dish it is excellent flavored with 
about two or three slices of bacon cut in little squares, 
browned in frying pan and grease and all poured into 
tomatoes ; bacon must not be scorched, fry slowly. It 
is also nice flavored with browned onion. Spaghetti 
may be used instead of macaroni. Bake as above. A 
little grated cheese and fine bread crumbs may be ad- 
ded. Tomatoes are nice simply stewed, with sugar, 
salt, piece of butter and bread or cracker crumbs. 


Prepare macaroni as above, that is boiling twenty 
minutes and rinsing with cold water, then put with a 
goodly supply of thin white sauce into double boiler 
and steam about one-half hour or more. 


May be used as a vegetable, dessert or breakfast 
food. Wash as rice but cook a long time in double 
boiler like oatmeal. A very nice garnish for stewed or 
fried chicken. 



Boll rice or, rather, steam it until it is large flakes 
and dry out a little by setting in the oven. *Brown an 
onion or more in frying-pan in butter or oleomargarine 
(^ nice suet or bacon dripping could be used). Add 
to it the boiled rice and about the same quantity or 
little less of tomatoes. Flavor with red pepper or pa- 
prika, salt and more butter if not rich enough. Stir 
carefully so as not to break the rice grains. Like 
spaghetti, the real thing should be rather hot with red 
pepper, but both are a whole lot better for the intes- 
tines if only enough to flavor is used. 



Eggs, like milk, begin to lose their food value after 
twenty-four hours. Never give an invalid an egg 
more than three days old. Storing eggs is simply a 
method of closing pores of shell and is not always safe. 
Eggs are capable of sustaining and supporting life, and 
are, therefore, about one of the most perfect foods 
which we have. 

White and yolk together contain about 75 per cent 
water, 12JE^ proteids and 12 per cent fat. Separately, 
the white contains more proteid and the yolk more 

Very few people know how to cook an egg in such 
a manner as to keep it digestible and get from it its 
full natural nutriment. The old-fashioned two and 
three minute method spoils the nourishment of the 
egg. They are usually so high in price that it pays to 
get all the food value out of them. 

Weighed pound for pound, eggs are more expensive 
than meat. It takes ten average eggs to weigh a 
pound, but eggs are more easily digested than meat, 
when slightly cooked or raw, and it is possible to make 
a very great many delicious dishes with them. Use 
low temperature and longer time for all egg dishes. 


Take a pan or frying pan and nearly fill with boil- 
ing water. Then before breaking a single egg, toast a 
number of squares of bread, butter them and put them 
on a warm platter. Keep them warm just inside the 
oven door or in warming oven until eggs are ready. 


When toast is ready, put about 1 teaspoonful of salt 
into the water. This keeps the white of the egg from 
floating away from the yellow. It helps the egg to 
stay together, firm and even. Now then, break the egg 
carefully, slide it from its shell very gently into the 
boiling water, which has been moved to back of range 
or gas turned out. Cover and let stand five minutes or 

Be sure that the yellow is covered with the white 
and that the water covers the entire egg. When the 
white is set, run an egg slide around and under the 
egg, to make sure that it does not stick to the bottom 
of the pan. Lift it up carefully on the egg slide (an 
old-fashioned milk skimmer), and cut off any ragged 
edges of white that may be there and place it neatly 
on the very center of the toast, and a wee bit of melted 
butter, and it is ready to serve. 

(Some call these steamed eggs and some coddled eggs) 

Nearly all the soft boiled eggs on the majority of 
tables, are hard near the surface and too soft next to 
the yolk. Pour over 1 egg, 1 quart of boiling water, 
and let stand about eight minutes or little longer on 
the table. It is then ready to serve. The white will 
be soft and creamy. This is rather expensive as it 
takes so much -gas to boil so much water, but the sys- 
tem gets so many times the nourishment than the 
other way, that the loss is greatly repaid. 

Three quarts of boiling water will cook seven eggs 
in eight to ten minutes. About three and a half quarts 
will cook ten eggs in same time. The use of a heated, 
earthen dish will take less water. 

Another very good method is to put over in cold 
water, bring to a boil, cover and let stand half a minute 


or so. In this method one should use a raised per- 
forated bottom to keep from bottom of kettle or they 
will cook too much on one side. Different sizes and dif- 
ferent kinds require more or less time. 

SHIRRED EGGS (Baked Eggs) 

Cover the bottoms of small dishes with bread 
crumbs, being sure that the bread is fresh. Into each 
dish break one or two eggs. Dust the tops with fresh 
bread crumbs, salt and pepper. Nearly fill a shallow 
pan with hot water and set in the oven, standing the 
little dishes containing the eggs in the water, until the 
whites are set. Serve individually or on platter of 
toast. They can also be baked together in one dish. 


Small or large timbale molds may be used. Cold 
tongue or any nice cold meat left over may be used. 
Chop the meat and after brushing the molds well with 
melted butter, sprinkle the bottom and sides thickly 
with the chopped meat. Then break into each mold 
an egg (two if molds are large), and dust with salt 
and pepper. Put a half teaspoonful of butter on top of 
each egg. Then stand the molds in a dripping pan 
which is half full of boiling water. Cover tops wifh 
oiled or paraffin paper and cook in the oven till eggs 
are set. Cover the bottom of a heated platter with to- 
mato sauce (recipe elsewhere). If a very pretty dish is 
desired, cut rounds of bread with a bakipg powder can 
and toast, set these into the tomato sauce, then loosen 
the eggs from mold with a knife and place on top of 
each round of toast. Then a tablespoonful of cream 
gravy may be placed on top of each egg and the edge 
of platter garnished with green peas. This dish is 
delicious and nourishing and can be made both very 
plain or very fancy as required. 



For luncheon for three people, beat the whites and 
yolks of 4 or 5 eggs separately. To the yolks, when 
light, add a sprinkle of fine bread crumbs, not many. 
Then add milk as for a regular milk omelet (2 table- 
spoonfuls to an egg). After seasoning with salt and 
pepper, pour into a hot buttered pan (I like the heavy 
iron spiders best as they hold the temperature more 

While this is cooking, get the whites real stiff. 
When the omelet begins to thicken and brown on the 
under side, spread the white over it and let them stay 
long enough to become set through. It is well 
to cover both while setting and the temperature should 
be low. Roll omelet or fold half over and set on heated 
platter garnished with lettuce or parsley if desired. 

If one has two small iron spiders, one can arrange 
this like a layer cake, in either two or four layers, by 
putting the whites in one to cook, and the yolks in the 
other or dividing and putting part of each in each 

Various omelets can be made from chopped meat, 
jelly or even a nice bread stuffing heated in the oven. 
These can be folded into the omelet and neatly served 
and sliced. 


Rub butter on cups or custard baking cups. Break 
eggs, one or two in a cup, and set in steamer till set. 
Better if cups are heated first. Serve individually or 
on platter of toast. 


Beaten eggs may be poured over fried potatoes, 
cover and move to back of range. A little milk may 
be added to the yolks of any omelet. 



Have frying pan hot with about a teaspoonful each 
of butter and dripping. Simply beat eggs and add a 
little milk, about 3 tablespoonfuls to an tgg. Fry 
slowly and keep them lightly scraped from the bot- 
tom. These are quickly made. Season and remove as 
soon as scrambled or they will become watery. Serve 
on hot platter of lettuce, parsley or toast. 


Have about a teaspoonful each of dripping and but- 
ter in hot frying pan. Drop in 2 or 3 eggs and break 
and stir quickly. Season, This is the quickest way to 
prepare eggs. 

SCRAMBLED EGGS (Spanish Style) 

Brown about 2 onions for about 6 eggs. Season 
with a little red pepper or paprika. Four over them 
the beaten eggs and scramble as above. 


(Might be called Pork Omelet) 

Fry little, thin pieces of salt pork and left over strips 
of ham fat and bacon, nice and brown. Pour off near- 
ly all grease except enough to fry the eggs. Beat about 
5 or 6 eggs anil pour over the pork; cover about two 
minutes, very low temperature. 


Many dishes can be made from hard boiled eggs 
which, if boiled at a low temperature, are not so hard 
to digest. If simmered for twenty-five or thirty-five 
minutes, they will be mealy and better flavored than 
when cooked too fast. 



These are often called "deviled eggs." Simmer till 
hard, remove shell, cut through the middle, take out 
yolk, carefully leaving the white whole (unbroken). 
Mash the yolks with a fork, add to them some chopped 
cold meat, about 2 rounding teaspoonfuls to an egg, 
salt, a very little vinegar or mayonnaise, about 1 
teaspoonful to 3 eggs, mustard about as for salad 
dressing, dash of cayenne or paprika, olive oil, butter 
or raw yolk, to make moist and smooth or mayonnaise. 
Mix well, fill the whites and serve in bed of lettuce or 
parsley, or leave out olive oil and spread what is left 
of falling on bottom of baking dish. Stand the stuffed 
whites in this and warm in oven. 

These can be made several ways, meat left out and 
bread crumbs used, chopped onion used for flavor. 

The filling makes a change for sandwiches or the 
stuffed eggs wrapped in paraffin paper is nice for a 
change in lunch basket. 


Beat 1 egg, add to it one tablespoonful of cream and 
1 of milk, season lightly with salt. Have ready two 
nice slices of toasted bread. Fry like a pancake just 
a little butter and fold to center and lay on the toast. 
One egg will make two. They cook in about half a 
minute. Very nice. Have frying pan moderately — 
not too hot. Cover a second if desired. 

Many other recipes for eggs will be found in alma- 
nacs or little recipe books which can be had for the 
asking. The only thing is to remember the principle 
of low temperature. 



A salad is a preparation of meat, fish, fruit or vege- 
tables, separately or in combination, and served with 
diflferent dressings. 

Never serve a heavy salad with a dinner where 
there are several courses. Heavy salads are meat and 
fish salad and can be served with soup, or at luncheon. 

Rubbing the dish with garlic or onion is sufficient 
flavoring for some salads. 

The prettiest way to serve salads is individually. Do 
not serve heavy salads in glass dishes. All material 
for salads should be very cold and in nearly all cases 
prepared beforehand. Put together and put on dress- 
ing the last thing before serving, because in salads 
where leaves are used, they will wilt, if allowed to 
stand too long. 

Lettuce and celery should be washed in salt water, 
then in clear, cold water and wiped. Watercress and 
celery the same. Don't prepare any starch foods with 
vinegar, because the acid is against the digestion of 
sugar. Nut salads and soups are very good for in- 
valids and should be served in glass dishes. 

No bacteria (germs) can live in an acid medium. 
There is acid in oranges, lemons, apples, etc. 

Cellulose in oranges, is the white part and should 
not be used. Cellulose in bananas is the white part on 
the outside and should be scraped ofT after peeling. 
Cut bananas for salad one-fourth lengthwise and then 
crosswise three times. Four ordinary sized oranges 
make a cup of juice. Targon has tonic effects and adds 
a great deal to fruit salads. For a cup of dressing, a 
very small teaspoonful of targon cut up fine is suf- 



Equal parts of sugar, lemon and water. In addition 
a few shredded leaves of mint and targon, will im- 
prove it greatly. 


One small teaspoonful of chopped targon to 5^ cup 
of lemonade dressing. This can be served over straw- 
berries, tomatoes, oranges and bananas. 


(This is too expensive for common use). Very good. 

Two rounded tablespoonfuls of almond butter, 2 
tablespoonfuls sugar, ^ cup of water, 2 tablespoon- 
fuls of lemon juice, j4 teaspoonful of salt. Rub the 
almond butter and sugar together, then add the water 
and let boil .in double boiler, add lemon juice and salt. 
Strain through wire sieve and serve. Is good over 
apples, lettuce and chopped walnuts. Almond dress- 
ing or other dressings m.ay be used with apples and 
bananas ; apples and oranges, apples and pineapples ; 
oranges, pineapples and strawberries. 


Very good and easily made. 

Three-fourths of a cup of orange juice, }i cup lemon 
juice, 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar, thin rind j4 of an 
orange. Do not put any of the white part in, as this 
is the poisonous part. When ready to serve, remove 
the orange rind. This is delicious served over fruit 
salad No. 1. 


Cut up 3 bananas, 3 apples and 3 oranges and serve 
on lettuce leaves with orange dressing. This is suffi- 
cient for seven people. Three or four California grapes 


and half walnuts on top of each dish, make it very 
pretty. This is very good for invalids. It is inexpens- 
ive and easily made. The white should all be scraped 
off the oranges. The fruits and dressing may be pre- 
pared beforehand and placed on ice, but dressing 
should not be put on until ready to serve. 


Cut up 2 or 3 oranges in small pieces, 2 bananas 
sliced, ^ cup of English walnuts. Cook 1 cup cran- 
berries in 1 pint of water, with pinch of soda, till they 
begin to pop, then drain. Bind together with a syrup 
made of ^ cup of water and 1 cup of sugar. Put cran- 
berries into syrup and cook until they color the syrup. 
Pour over bananas, oranges and nuts and set to cool. 


For four or five people take 2 cups of very nice eat- 
ing apples, chopped a little in the chopping bowl, and 
1 cup of the inner stalks and heart of celery broken a 
little with the chopping knife or cut in fine pieces with 
a paring knife and ^ cup of English walnuts broken a 
little or chopped rather coarse in chopping bowl. Pre- 
pare all three and put in ice box. When ready to 
serve, mix with Yz. cup of mayonnaise dressing with 
about 2 tablespoonfuls of cream added to it. Good 
cream either sweet or sour. The boiled dressing may 
be used instead of mayonnaise. 

Salads are wholesome and refreshing in very warm 
weather, if made very simple, keeping in mind a few 
of the principles governing digestion. They are eco- 
nomical and therefore should not belong entirely to 
the fashionable world, as most all left overs can be 
made into delicious salads. 

The three kinds of dressing most often used, are 


French, mayonnaise and boiled dressing, which are 
very good, especially the French dressing, which is so 
simple and easy to make. 

Too much cannot be said as to the value of olive 
oil to the human system. It is an acquired taste, but 
many would be glad to learn. It has been very ex- 
pensive in past years, but so many people are taking 
up the cultivation of the olive tree, that I hope it will 
soon be within reach of all. Vegetable salads are gen- 
erally better with the French dressing. Olives are 
a nice garnish or mixture with most of the vegetable 
salads, and some of the fish salads. 

Radishes whole, or partly peeled back like a quart- 
ered orange skin, is a pretty garnish ; also cold boiled 
eggs sliced. Eggs should be simmered slowly one-half 
hour. Olives make a nice garnish but are rather ex- 
pensive. Cold boiled carrots and beets also make pretty 
garnishes. These are only a few. The following are 
a few of the many combinations, w'hich may be used 
for salads. It is easy to make up one's own combina- 

Cold boiled potatoes, onions and lettuce. Not too 
many onions and those which have been soaked in 
cold water and parboiled about one minute. 

Cold boiled potatoes and celery. 

New, small onions, cold potatoes and chopped pars- 
ley (very nice with French dressing), 

Sliced cucumbers and sliced new onions. 

Cabbage alone sliced (not too fine) with French, 
mayonnaise or boiled dressing. 

Lettuce and cold boiled potatoes and cold boiled 
beets. These may be mixed or they make a very 
pretty dish arranged separately. 

Endive, celery, beets and hard boiled eggs, either 
mixed or arranged separately. 

Cold boiled potatoes, baked or stewed beans, mixed 


slightly and but little, so as to mash the beans as little 
as possible. 

Lima beans are excellent but expensive, beets and 
carrots may be added. 

Cold boiled peas and string beans. 

Asparagus tops and cauliflower may be added or 
other vegetables. 

Do not cut vegetables too fine. 

Cold baked navy beans alone or served on lettuce 
leaves, either in one dish or individually with mayon- 
naise dressing or boiled dressing. Cold boiled beets 
and watercress. 

String beans alone. Should be simmered about two 
hours in salted water and about an hour before putting 
the dressing on, flavor with a little pepper and vinegar 
and olive oil or melted butter. 


One heaping teaspoonful of salt, 2 heaping teaspoon- 
fuls of sugar, or more if vinegar is very strong, 1 
heaping teaspoonful of flour, 1 scant teaspoonful of 
muatard (dry), 1 scant cup of vinegar, 1 or 2 eggs, 
ji teaspoonful of red pepper, paprika, butter the size 
of an egg. 

Mix all the dry ingredients well together. Put into 
a little double boiler with the vinegar, and stir till 
rather thick, then cover and let steam from four to 
ten minutes to cook flour well. Add a little butter. 
Remove from fire and beat to cool about one minute 
before pouring over the beaten eggs. If poured on 
too hot, the eggs will curdle. Very nice for cabbage, 
potatoes, shrimp or anything that can be used with 
mayonnaise. This will keep in icebox for a week. 
When using it, take out what is needed and if desired, 
add a little sour or whipped cream, but not to the 
part left in icebox, or it will spoil. 



The secret of mayonnaise is to have dishes and all 
ingredients ice cold. Yolks of 3 or 3 eggs, raw, 1 
heaping teaspoonftil salt, 2 heaping teaspoonfuls of 
sugar (may be omitted if one desires), Yz teaspoonful 
mustard, about y% teaspoonful cayenne pepper, Y2 to 
1 cup of olive oil, 1-3 to Yz as much vinegar as oil, 
juice of ^ to 1 whole lemon. 

If taste for olive oil has not been acquired, then 
substitute part butter and gradually increase the quan- 
tity of olive oil each time the dressing is made. Put 
the eggs in a round bowl and beat with Dover ^^% 
beater a little, then add the dry ingredients which 
have been all mixed together, except the cayenne. 
Beat in the oil, drop by drop till the ^^% has absorbed 
all of it, then slowly add the vinegar and lemon juice 
and again the oil, and again the vinegar, be cautious 
about the cayenne as a very little will do. It must be 
all done slowly and carefully to prevent curdling. This 
will keep some time in a bottle or fruit can in the ice- 
box and whipped or sour cream may be added to the 
part used each time if desired. 


Take ^ vinegar and Yz oil, salt to taste and very lit- 
tle cayenne or paprika. Mix in a rounding bowl or 
some utensil easy to mix in. Beat salt into the oil, 
add vinegar slowly and last of all the pepper. This 
can be kept in an icebox some time. Mix before using 
each time. This may be flavored with targon, or 1 
teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce, but is very nice 


Tomatoes can be made into salad in many pretty 
ways. One very easy way is to peel and slice toma- 


toes, putting each one back in its place after dipping 
in mayonnaise so that it will appear like a whole to- 
mato, and then put a teaspoonful of mayonnaise on 
top. Very pretty served on a lettuce leaf. 


Scrape out the inside of the tomatoes and fill with 
celery cut rather small and dressed with mayonnaise. 
Can also be stuffed with other salads. Either one of 
these salads would be nice every day during the 
tomato season. 


Sliced tomatoes upon a platter or salad dish of let- 
tuce or upon individual salad plates of lettuce and 
dress with mayonnaise or French dressing. 


Three bunches of celery, 6 hard boiled eggs sliced, 
3 medium sized potatoes, 1 pickle, 1 tea cup walnuts. 

Chop potatoes and pickle fine, season with salt and 
cayenne. Mix with mayonnaise. Serve in tomato 
shells or on lettuce leaves or in glass dishes. 

(Cheap and easy to make) 

One cupful peanuts chopped fine, after shells and 
skins are removed. One cupful or more chopped cel- 
ery, and 2 hard boiled eggs, chopped fine. Mix with 
your favorite dressing and serve on lettuce leaves or 
in small glass dishes. A few potatoes added might 
make it fill out for a larger number, or left over stew 
or meat. Avoid the use of potatoes as far as possible 
in all salads, as they contain starch. 



Even quantities of chicken and celery chopped very- 
fine, about 2 cups or more of each. Chicken which has 
been nicely roasted or simmered should be used. 


Yolks of 3 raw eggs, >^ teacup of butter, 1 cup of 
vinegar, 2 teaspoonfuls of salt (even), y^ teaspoonful 
of mustard, >4 teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, 2 tea- 
spoonfuls sugar. 

Stir butter into eggs, add vinegar, salt, mustard, 
pepper and sugar. Put into double boiler, stir rapidly 
until it thickens. Cool and when ready to serve, add 
cup of whipped cream if desired. Use celery leaves 
for decoration. 

OYSTER SALAD (Very expensive but delicious) 

Two cans cove oysters, Yz bunch celery, 2 sour 
pickles (chopped) 1 cup of vinegar (diluted with 
water, salt and sugar to taste, ^ boiled potatoes, other 
half of salad, yolks of 7 eggs, 1 large teaspoonful of 
cornstarch or 2 of flour. Put in double boiler and 
stir until thick. This recipe is not scientific as so 
much starch is used, but it is delicious. Use one^half 
amount of salad bulk in oysters and balance of pota- 
toes and celery. 


Two cans of shrimps, 3 bunches of celery or 3 
bunches of lettuce (inner leaves), Remove fish from 
can, soak one-half hour in ice water to make crisp and 
tender, break into bits^ not smaller than one-half inch 
cubes. Use lettuce or celery, whichever is in season. 
Mix with mayonnaise or your favorite dressing. 



One teaspoonful of salt, 2 of sugar, scant cup of 
vinegar, dash of red pepper. Pour over dish of raw 
cabbage cut fine. 


Put into an iron spider, a heaping tablespoonful of 
dripping. When hot, add about a quart of finely 
shaved or chopped cabbage. Let cook slowly for fif- 
teen minutes and then move to back of stove. When 
about ready to serve, season with salt, pepper and a 
little sugar and 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar. If so de- 
sired, a cup of sweet cream may be added. 


One bowl chopped cabbage, 1 bowl of chopped 
boiled beets, 1 cup of prepared horseradish, salt, and 
sugar if desired. Put in bJ^tles with wide mouth and 
cork. Excellent in about a week. Eat with meat. 


One bowl each of chopped red cabbage and boiled 
beets, 1 cup of chopped onion (parboiled 1 minute and 
drained), 1 cup of grated horseradish, 13^ cups of 
sugar, 1 tablespoonful of salt, ^ teaspoonful each of 
black and red pepper, about 1 cup of vinegar. Mix 
and bottle. 



"The Staff of Life" 

A paraphrase of Dr. Johnson's. "Whenever the 
bread is ill made, there is poverty, or there is avarice, 
or there is stupidity ; in short, the family is somewhere 
grossly wrong." 

Wholesome bread must be light (grained not 
feathery) and well baked, and never sour. 

The quantity of liquid used should be measured in- 
stead of measuring the flour. 

The temperature to raise bread in should not be be- 
low 68 nor above 90 degrees. Best bread is made at 
68 to 78 degrees. 

To test flour for bread, take up handful, close hand 
on it, then open. If it makes an impression or stays 
together, flour is good, or stick finger in and if the 
impression is left, the flour is good. 

The yellow flour is best for bread. 

If flour is very white, alum has been used, and it 
is not good. 

Winter wheat is best for bread — it has more gluten 
in it which forms elastic pockets for the yeast plant. 

Spring wheat is best for cake — it has less gluten in 

Gluten has all to do with raising the bread. A gas 
carbon-dioxide, raises the bread and gluten is elastic 
and holds the gas in pockets (cells), hence, white bread 
is more spongy. 

The softer the dough, the better the bread. 

All germ diseases known are fungi or plant 



growth. Yeast is a plant and the lowest form of 
plant life. If without yeast, one could start a plant 
by putting water and sugar in flour and let it ferment. 
Yeast must be good or bread will not be good. One 
can test it by putting in a cup or bowl with a little 
warm water, sugar and flour. If it foams or bubbles 
in a few minutes it is good. 

Conditions and essentials for growth of yeast plant 
— heat, moisture, sugar. 

Grapes have yeast property. Sugar causes ferment 
in grapes. All ferments are sugar. 

Ascetic fermentation takes place about 90 degrees 
and above or when the bread is left to raise too long. 

A dark streak in bread is due to light temperature. 

More yeast makes bread tender. A penny cake of 
compressed yeast to 1 pint or 1^^ pints liquid, makes 
best bread. 

The object of kneading is to make bread fine grained. 
This should consist of a rolling motion, keeping the 
dough turning at same time, and does not require a 
great deal of force nor any punching or pounding. 

TTo brown it. 
Objects of J To aid digestion. 
Baking Bread [ To kill the yeast plant. 
LTo liberate the gases. 




r White. 
Entire Wheat 
(best and highest 

After baking, bread should always be put on a cake 
rest or the molding board — if there is no cake rest, 
across the tins, but never put away while warm. It 
must be entirely cold. 

Tough bread comes from too low a temperature 
when first put in the oven. To remedy this, butter 
quickly about twenty minutes after putting in oven. 


Ropey bread is a bread disease. It is caused from 
bacteria in the place where it is made, which is con- 
taminated. Everything about the place should be 
disinfected. There are other bread diseases as well 
which should be all remedied by disinfection. Bread 
should not rise more than twice the original bulk. 
About iy2 teaspoonfuls of salt should be used to 1 
pint of liquid. 

In cold weather, all materials used in baking bread, 
should be kept in a warm room over night and bring 
out only as much flour as needed, for if all is brought 
out, the changing of temperature, spoils it. Flour must 
be kept closed as it absorbs moisture very readily. 

If in a hurry with bread the next day make a little 
well in some flour in the bread bowl the night before 
with about y^ cup of water, little sugar and the com- 
pressed yeast cake. You will find this quite a little 
start in the morning. 


The very best bread may be spoiled in the baking. 
For large loaves, the oven should be very hot the first 
fifteen minutes, that is hot enough to brown them 
lightly in ten minutes, or so hot that you can hold 
your hand in the oven while you count twenty, rather 
fast; the second fifteen minutes, "not quite so hot as the 
first fifteen ; the third fifteen minutes not so hot as the 
second, and the last fifteen minutes a little cooler still 
or just slowly baking that is all. 

With the gas range it is easy to regulate this heat 
or with a little study the coal or wood range may be 
easily regulated. 

The gas range should be lighted ten or fifteen min- 
utes before the bread is ready to bake and may be 
turned out ten or fifteen minutes before the bread is 
taken out. ' • 


For small loaves, the temperature should be 
changed every ten minutes instead of fifteen. 

Large loaves should bake at least one hour or one 
and a quarter hours. Small loaves thirty to forty min- 
utes. Bread should be grainy in appearance when cut 
not spongy or feathery. 


For four good sized loaves. 

Ingredients — Nearly 1^4 quarts of lukewarm water, 
1 compressed yeast cake (two cents), 1 heaping table- 
spoonful salt, 1^/2 heaping tablespoonfuls sugar and 1 
heaping tablespoonful lard. 

Rule — take large earthenware dish with cover and 
sift into it, about 2 quarts of flour. Make a little well 
in the center of the flour. Put yeast cake in the well 
and pour upon it a little of the water. Let stand five to 
ten minutes, then add the other ingredients and the 
rest of the water, being very careful not to have 
water too warm, better have it too cool than too warm. 
Beat it about five minutes and let stand for an hour or 
two or till it is rather light. If it does not start to 
bubble, sometimes beating it will start it. Beat again 
and when ready to knead, cut in flour with spoon and 
hands till it can be turned on to the molding board. 
Knead fifteen minutes, being careful not to get it 
too stiff. Put back in dish and let stand till twice 
its original bulk. Turn on to the board again and 
knead five minutes, then cut and mould into loaves. 
Single pans are best. Cover with a towel doubled 
and let them rise till twice their size. Bake one hour 
if four large loaves, or about thirty-five to forty min- 
utes if seven or eight small ones. 

This bread can be completed in five hours from start 
to finish, if temperature is warm and yeast good, but 
sometimes it takes six to eight hours. 


BREAD NO. 2. (Brewers' or Potato Yeast) 

Same as No. 1 except using a different kind of yeast. 
When the compressed can not be obtained, then about 
one and a half or two days before making bread, put 
in fruit jar, a large boiled, mashed potato or a grated 
raw one with the water it has been boiled in and J^ 
yeast cake (dry) or a whole cake if desired, ^ tea- 
spoonful salt and 1 teaspoonful or more of sugar and 
a little flour. Do not have the jar too full, about a 
little more than half. Set in a warm place to ferment, 
with cover on jar, not too tight. Fermentation takes 
a day or two according to temperature. 

About 2 cups of this ought to make four loaves of 
bread, though more does not hurt. 

This same yeast can also be made with the water 
drained off of the peeled potatoes which have been 
boiled for dinner. This kind of yeast makes the bread 
more moist than the compressed yeast and there is no 
danger of injuring the flavor of the bread by an ex- 
cess of this yeast. It is almost as lively as the com- 
pressed yeast. 

Not necessary to use quite as much liquid for this 
as when compressed yeast is used. When starting 
the yeast, use a clean jar each time. 


(Very good but rather expensive) 

One cup scalded milk, 1 cup boiling water, 1 table- 
spoonful lard, 1 tablespoonful butter, 1^/^ teaspoonfuls 
salt, 6 cups sifted white flour or 1 cup of white flour 
and 5 of entire wheat flour may be used, 1 penny yeast 
cake dissolved in ^ cup lukewarm water. Follow 
rules for mixing and kneading nearly the same as No. 
1. More kneading would make it finer grained. A 
little sugar if desired. 


SWEDISH ROLLS. (Very nice) 

Two cups scalded milk, 3 tablespoonfuls butter, 2 
tablespoonfuls sugar, 1 teaspoonful salt, 1 penny cake 
of yeast mixed with white of 1 egg in 3^ cup of water. 
Knead and let rise once. Knead again and flavor with 
currants and cinnamon. Make into rolls and let rise. 


The most important breakfast dish is toast. Bread 
simply seared and browned on the outside is as indi- 
gestible as fresh baked bread. Toast is made too fast. 
Toast should never be scraped, which it won't have to 
be if made right. Warm the bread in the oven from 
three to five minutes so that it is well warmed 
through, then take fork and brown not too close to 
the coals, or instead of warming in oven, hold at suffi- 
cient distance from the coals to heat through nicely 
and still brown. 

The little bee hive toasters do very nicely if not al- 
lowed to get too hot, or the broiler of a gas range. 
Cut the bread neither too thick nor too thin, about 
one-half inch slices. In toasting bread properly starch 
is changed to dextrin, thereby aiding digestion, leav- 
ing less work for the stomach and hence used so much 
for the sick. 

ZWEIBACH. (Twice baked bread) 

This is invaluable for the invalid or one suffering 
from weak stomach. Take bread about a day or so 
old and slice rather thin about one-quarter inch thick. 
Lay on dripping pan or pie tins, in moderate oven. 
Bake ten minutes then turn slices and bake ten more 
— not necessary to brown, just a slight tinge here and 
there. Prepare enough for two or three days and keep 
in a well aired or scalded tin box covered tightly. It 


is well to wrap in paraffin paper and when going to 
serve, take out what is needed and toast brown with 
toasting fork or toaster. It has better effect if eaten 
dry with a little butter. The one objection is that it 
cannot be masticated without plenty of noise. One 
enjoys it most alone in their room or out of doors. 


Like pie crust, the secret of success is in getting the 
shortening well mixed with the flour, baking powder 
and salt are much easier rubbed with one's hands than 
with a knife. 

If you make your own baking powder, ^ of a tea- 
spoonful to a cup of flour is sufficient. See recipe for 
Baking Powder. Sift flour with baking powder and 
salt (about 1 rounding teaspoonful to 3 cups of flour). 
Use 1 good tablespoonful or better of shortening. Any 
nice, clean tried out shortening or dripping will do, 
only if for a convalescent, use butter or a very nice 
grade of oleomargarine (not butterine). Like pie 
crust, wet carefully with sweet milk (water is very 
good also) (cream is delicious, either sour or sweet), 
pouring on in small quantities here and there and 
lightly and quickly stirring with dessert spoon from 
outside toward center. Mix as soft as can be handled 
and handle as little and as quick as possible after mix- 
ing. Roll with just enough flour to prevent sticking. 
Cut with baking powder can or (fried) potato cutter 
and put on floured (slightly) pie tins or dripping pan. 
This method never fails. Bake one-half hour in mod- 
erate oven till a rich brown, longer baking does no 
harm. For the sour cream or milk, if not sour enough, 
use 1 teaspoonful either of baking powder or cream of 
tartar with flour and 1 even teaspoonful of soda or sal- 
eratus to a cup or 1^ cups of cream or milk. Dissolve 
soda in a ^ of a cup of warm water and mix with the 


milk. Three cups of flour will make biscuits for three 
or four people. 

The soda and baking powder may be mixed with 
the flour. One is apt to use too much soda, but a 
little practice will correct this. For shortcake use 
about 1^ good tablespoonfuls of shortening. 


Two cups scalded milk, 54 cup sugar, ^ cup molas- 
ses 1^ teaspoonfuls salt, 1 penny yeast cake in J4 
cup luke warm water, 4^ cups entire wheat flour. This 
can be made with more milk or water and mix soft as 
cake or kneaded as white bread, better kneaded. This 
recipe makes two small loaves ; let rise at least once 
before putting in pan. The entire wheat flour is the 
healthiest flour made; the fine white flour has a con- 
stipating tendency, thereby locking up a great deal of 
poison in the system that should be carried off. For 
another recipe see milk and water bread. 


Two and a half cups warm liquid, ^ cup molasses, 
1^ teaspoonfuls salt, ^ yeast cake in j^ cup of luke 
warm water, 3 cups white flour, 3 cups graham flour, a 
little sugar may be used if desired. 

Prepare as white bread and bake. Half of the bat- 
ter for white bread may be used and add the other 
ingredients. The graham may be sifted with coarse 


One tablespoonful drippings, 1 tablespoonful butter, 
Yi. cup of syrup fill with molasses, 2 cups or little 
more of very sour milk, cream is better or part cream, 
2 teaspoonfuls salt, 1 good teaspoonful soda dis- 
solved in a very little warm water, 1 cup white flour, 


1 cup of graham flour, 1 cup corn meal, 2 eggs (can 
be made without eggs). 

Put Httle circles of paraffin paper in bottom of bak- 
ing powder cans, grease cans well. Beat the whole 
well about five minutes. It should be about the con- 
sistency of cake batter or a little stiffer if made with 
cream. Fill cans about ^ full, place in steamer and 
steam three or four hours. The longer it is steamed 
the better the flavor and easier to digest. Serve hot 
with butter or syrup. Makes nice sandwiches cold. 
Very nice made with real sour buttermilk. 

Fuel can be saved by making plum pudding or 
veal loaf at the same time and steam all in baking 
powder cans. The veal loaf should not be put on 
till two hours before serving and warmed before put- 
ting in steamer. If milk is not sour enough for soda 
to act well, add either a little cream of tartar or bak- 
ing powder to flour, about 1 teaspoonful. It can be 
made with all syrup instead of syrup and molasses 
mixed. Less soda if all syrup is used. 


Chop 1 cup suet with ^ cup of flour — pick out the 
suet strings while chopping, one cup molasses, 2 cups 
corn meal, 1^ cups sour milk, 1 teaspoonful soda 
(scant), 1 teaspoonful salt. 

This may be cooked in a covered steam pudding 
dish, baking powder cans or an ordinary deep pan 
covered with an inverted pie tin. 

Steam three hours and eat with syrup. 

BREAD (Expensive) Taught by most of the Cook- 
ing Schools) 

Three tablespoonfuls (level) lard, 3 tablespoonfuls 
(level) sugar, lj4 tablespoonfuls (level) salt, 3 cups 
milk scalded slightly, 3 cups boiled water, 3 penny 


yeast cakes. Break yeast cakes in ^ cup luke warm 
water. Put lard, sugar and salt in bread bowl and pour 
warm liquid over it. Put in flour and yeast and beat ten 
minutes, then cut in flour with a knife and knead 
twenty minutes. Let rise to double the quantity. 
Knead five minutes and make into small loaves. Let 
rise again to twice its size and bake thirty to thirty- 
five minutes in gas oven. Oven must be hot when 
bread goes in. First ten minutes high temperature; 
second ten minutes lower gas and third ten minutes 
lower again. It is well to let it stand ten minutes in 
oven after gas is turned out. 


One cup brown sugar, y^ cup molasses or syrup, 3 
cups sour milk, 2j^ cups white flour, 3 cups graham 
flour, 2 teaspoonfuls salt, 2 teaspoonfuls soda (scant) 
2 eggs. 

Beat hard for five minutes and bake for one hour in 
a good steady oven — not too hot. When the bread 
shrinks from side of pan, it is done. Always wise to 
try it with a straw. This rule makes three small 
loaves. Nice for plain sandwiches or cheese and nut 
sandwiches. Improved by a little shortening, about 
1^ tablespoonfuls, unless made with cream or rich 
buttermilk. Use a little cream of tartar or baking 
powder if milk is not sour enough. The graham may 
be sifted through coarse sieve if desired. 


Four eggs beaten, 1^ cups flour, ^ cup hot water, 
lYi teaspoonfuls baking powder, 1 tablespoonful anise 
seed, Yi teaspoonful salt. 

Add the hot water last of all. Bake in a loaf tin. 



Take a piece of bread dough and work or pull 
through it a little butter and sugar. Roll with the 
rolling pin as for pie crust; spread with butter and 
sugar and then roll up like rolled jelly cake. Slice off 
with a knife and place on ends in dripping pan leav- 
ing room for them to rise. Let rise to twice their size 
and bake from twenty minutes to a half hour. 

The plain buns are simply cut with biscuit cutter 
and let rise. 


Pull or work a little butter and sugar through some 
bread dough. Roll out with rolling pin. Butter the 
top, cut with a baking powder can and fold one-half 
upon the other like half cookies doubled. 

If no bread is to be baked they can be made rich 
enough when set. Any good bread recipe made a lit- 
tle richer and sweeter will make these. 


If fresh bread is wanted the same day it is baked, 
biscuits can be molded out of the same dough with- 
out any change. Small or large ones as desired. Much 
nicer if shortening and sugar are added, but lots more 
work and more expensive. 


Beat 2 eggs without separating, 1 coffee cup milk, 1 
coffee cup flour, i^ teaspoonful salt. 

Mix and bake in hot greased gem pans. Iron gem 
pans are the best. Bake in hot oven thirty-five min- 
utes. One egg and 1 teaspoonful of baking powder 
may be used. 



Beat whites and yolks of 2 eggs separately; add the 
yolks to 2 cups of sweet milk and stir in this 2 cups 
of flour, sifted with 1 teaspoonful of baking powder 
and one of salt. Add the whites and beat briskly, 
pour into hot greased muffin pans, not more than half 
full. Bake and serve at once. 

One egg, 1 teaspoonful butter, ^ cup milk, 2 teacups 
blueberries, dredged with flour, 2 cups flour, ^ cup 
sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Mix well and 
bake about half hour. 


The same as above only less sugar and 1 more egg. 


Large pancakes spread with jelly or fine hash, may 
be used and piled about seven or eight high. Cut like 
layer cake. Must be kept warm while baking; on the 
oblong griddle, three could be made at a time. 

Two cups common bran, 1 cup flour, 1^ cups sour 
milk, 1 teaspoonful of soda (about rounding), % cup 
butter, 3 tablespoonfuls molasses ; get good clean bran 
from feed store, sieve with coarsest sieve. Bake in 
muffin tins. Bran is very good for a sluggish system, 
a teaspoonful may be put in glass of cold water and 
drunk one-half to one hour before breakfast. 


One cup each of graham and white flour sifted to- 
gether with ^2 teaspoonful salt and 2 teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, 1 tablespoonful of sugar; beat 1 egg 


and stir into 1^ cups milk. Stir into flour with ,3 
tablespoonfuls melted butter or oleomargarine. 


Two-third cup butter, creamed with 1 cup sugar, 
the yolks of 3 eggs, 2 cups milk, 2 cups each of corn 
meal and white flour sifted with 1 teaspoonful of soda 
and 2 of cream of tartar. Last beat in 3 beaten whites. 
For a cheaper recipe see the following one. 

Waffles, Muffins and Corn Bread, may all be made 
simply with this foundation — 1 teaspoonful of salt, 2 
of sugar, an egg, or two if you have them, 2^ cups 
milk and 2>4 cups flour, 1 heaping tablespoonful of 
shortening, cold or melted. Waffles are better with 
more eggs and better if eggs are plenty enough to 
raise them instead of soda or baking powder. 

Waffles and mufflns need to be a little stififer than 
pancakes or cornbread. 

Use 1 teaspoonful of soda (cream of tartar or bak- 
ing powder if milk is not very sour) if sour milk, or 
2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder with sweet milk. 

When cold shortening is used either mix with the 
sugar or work with the flour and baking powder or 
soda as for pie crust, working well. 

Fritters are made with less grease and fried in deep 
fat (boiling). All of these arc eaten with syrup. 

In a pinch, water may be used for any of these in- 
stead of milk, but it does not make them tender. 


Syrup makes buckwheat cakes easier to digest. If 
dry yeast is used, set sometime in forenoon day be- 
fore, about % yeast cake ^et as for bread, in a large 
cup. At night make batter of about the same con- 
sistency as for cake, with warm water, using about 


}i cup of the buckwheat to a person (if a hearty eater, 
use 1 cup), and a warmed earthenware dish or bowl; 
(never use cheap tin). For four to six persons, use 
1 teaspoonful of sugar. Beat all together and let rise 
over night, covering warm both underneath and all 
over as one would make a baby snug in bed. It is 
well to make an all-over thick cozy for it. In the 
morning, add 1 heaping teaspoonful of salt, ^^ tea- 
spoonful of soda dissolved in a little warm water {% 
cup), and 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of good molasses or 2 
tablespoonfuls of buttermilk or milk (any kind) a cup 
wouldn't be any too much. 

Beat lightly and well. Bake brown on a moderately 
hot griddle or heavy frying pan. Cooking too fast 
and browning outside too quick, leaves the center in- 
digestible. Soapstone griddle is best of all. It takes 
a long time to heat but makes up for the trouble many 
times over. 

The above method never fails unless yeast is no 
good. They must not be kept too warm or too cold. 
Temperature has much to do with their success. Some 
take out a cup of the batter and put in cool place, be- 
fore adding the ingredients in the morning, and use 
this for yeast the next night, and are very successful 
in keeping it up all winter. But when cakes are not 
made every morning, as they should not be, once or 
twice is sufficient to use this batter for yeast. 


Any of the cooked cereals, cornmeal especially, well 
steamed in double boiler day before and a little 
thicker than for mush or porridge, set in granite loaf 
tin, dredged with corn meal and covered with towel 
to prevent heavy crust on top. A teaspoonful of sugar 
.added while cooking or a little sweet milk will make 
them brown quicker when fried without being 


breaded. Use sufficient grease, keep very hot, lower 
gas occasionally to keep from burning and do not 
turn till brown crust has formed. It takes about five 
minutes or more to a side. If grease is kept hot, they 
will not soak it up. Oatmeal is a little softer than 
cornmeal and sometimes fries better taken out in 
spoonfuls then sliced. Slice thicker than cornmeal 
and it is well to add a tablespoonful or so of cornmeal 
when cooking it. This is a good method to use up 
left over breakfast foods. 


If bread is very stale, slice and dip in water for a 
minute or less one at a time before dipping in the egg, 
but if ordinary stale bread say 2 or 3 days old, simply 
dip in the beaten egg and milk, 1 egg to a cup or 13^ 
cups milk; water may be substituted for milk; J4 tea- 
spoonful of salt. Fry brown on griddle or heavy frying 
pan. Some use all egg without milk and call it egg 
toast. The amount of eggs and milk used depends on 
the number to be served. Eat with syrup. 


Any pancakes spread with jelly or other ingredients 
and rolled. May be fastened with toothpick. 


An accompaniment to Roast Beef. 

Six rounding tablespoonfuls flour, 3 eggs well 
beaten, 2 cups milk, j4 teaspoonful salt. Blend flour 
and salt with some of the milk, add the rest, making 
about as thick as soft custard. Put in shallow but- 
tered pan. Bake slowly three-fourths hour, basting 
towards the last with the roast beef gravy, if one has 
a wire stand, the roast may be set up over it for the 


last fifteen to twenty minutes to drip on pudding. Cut 
in squares around roast on platter. It may be baked 
in dripping pan after roast and part of gravy are re- 

MILK TOAST. (Individual) 

Toast one or two thin slices of bread according to 
the rules for making good toast. While still hot 
spread over them a little fresh butter and sprinkle over 
them a little salt. Cut each slice in quarters or tri- 
angles. Place in a warm bowl and pour over them a 
cupful of scalded milk — that heated in a double boiler 
is the best. Serve at once. Excellent for invalids or 
anyone with weak stomach. For breakfast or supper 
serve individually. 


Prepare as for milk toast. Dip the buttered slices 
in slightly salted boiling water or moisten with 2 or 
3 tablespoonfuls of the water. Serve at once — with 
pcaclied egg if desired. Excellent for invalids. 


See Creamed Dried Beef on toast. It is made the 
same except that the plain white sauce is poured over 
the platter of toast without the beef. Drawn butter 
sauce may also be served over platter of toast; it is 
sometimes called buttered toast. 


SANDWICHES (including Lenten) 

If cold lunches are to be put up sandwiches require 
very careful attention, making them as dainty as pos- 
sible and wrapping well in paraffin paper to keep 
them fresh. A lettuce left on top of lunch helps to 
keep it fresh, also, or celery leaves; they impart a lit- 
tle of their freshness to the dinner basket or pail. 
Paper napkins are neat and fresh, as well as saving 
laundry labor. 

The success of sandwiches depends largely upon the 
bread. The bread should be fresh and cut thin. One 
day old is best and should never be more than three 
days old. A lettuce leaf on bread under mince meat 
will prevent juices from tainting or soaking bread as 
mustard or catsup. Have everything cold before pack- 
ing a cold lunch. 

Dainty shaped sandwiches may be cut with baking 
powder can or fancy cooky cutters. 


Cut fresh cucumbers very fine. Mix with salad 
dressing and spread thickly on buttered bread cut 
thin. If to stand or to be carried in a cold lunch, pro- 
tect bread with lettuce leaves. 


Mix peanut butter and cream cheese. Moisten with 
sweet cream and spread. 

Minced sandwiches can be made from mincing left- 
over boiled or baked fish, meat, fruits and eggs. 

Fish should be carefully prepared and seasoned; 


when making the sandwich, sprinkle with water-cress 
minced or chopped fine. If not a lenten sandwich, 
mix with hard boiled egg. 

Sardines may be cleared of bone and skin and rubbed 
smooth with lemon juice. 

Left-over boiled ham, using about one-third fat, is 
very nice minced and flavored. Use mustard only 
occasionally and catsup also, unless for out-door work- 
ers. Too much of it irritates the stomach. 

Cold roasts or fresh cold steak can be minced. It 
may also be mixed with a little cold ham or corn beef. 

A little paprika is nice in the minced sandwiches. 

If one has not a food grinder, use a chopping knife 
for mincing. 

Hard boiled eggs can be rubbed smooth and sea- 
soned for sandwiches or sliced cold and seasoned. May- 
onnaise is a nice seasoning for them. 

Fried bacon, nice and crisp and drained on paper 
in oven, makes dainty sandwiches. Salt pork sliced 
very thin may be used the same. A small bottle of cat- 
sup or little white jar (as druggists use for salve) of 
mustard or chili sauce. 

Home-made mustard may be made of one teaspoon- 
ful of salt, two of sugar, and two or three of mustard 
rubbed smooth with vinegar, or a little flour may be 
added and set bowl into boiling water and stir until 
smooth. Red pepper or paprika may be used if de- 


One cup of jelly mixed with ^ cup of nut meats 
(any kind) chopped fine. Quince jelly is delicious but 
rather expensive. 


Equal quantities of figs, raisins and blanched al- 
monds cut fine. Moisten with orange juice so that it 


will spread easily. The fig filling for cake, flavored 
with lemon juice and nuts, is very good. 

Moisten and stone dates and mash with nuts and 
lemon juice. 

Cheese sandwiches are good with a little fruit, es- 
pecially strawberries. 

Those carrying a cold lunch like a variety of sand- 
wiches occasionally — say, one fruit, one meat, one fish 
— and it often happens that one has just enough ma- 
terial on hand to put up this kind of a lunch. It is al- 
ways well, especially with children's lunches, to put 
in a little raw fruit, a banana one day, an orange an- 
other, an apple, a bunch of grapes, etc. Children should 
have not more than one meat sandwich. Fruit and 
nuts are better. 

Dainty sandwiches of any of the above may be made 
from single slices of fresh bread, rolled and fastened 
with a toothpick. Make pleasant little surprises of 
any kind to stimulate the appetite, especially of indoor 
hard workers. It means so much to keep up their 
strength. One can study materials on hand and plan 
new varieties. 


Five cents worth makes about eight sandwiches. 
Equal to the best brands on the market. Buy the pea- 
nuts roasted. Shell and skin (blanch). They are 
roasted enough if the skins are red. If not, roast in 
shallow baking pans until skins are dark red. When 
cool, the peanuts should be rubbed about in pans to 
loosen skins. Fan the skins all out. Put in a small 
bag made of strong flour sacking and beat with a mal- 
let upon a smooth flat stone. The peanuts have enough 
oil to make them cohere after eight minutes pounding. 
A little salt helps to bring out the oil; then salt to 
taste. A little olive oil or butter may be added to 


make them spread easily. They can be ground in a 
meat chopper and butter added, but grinding will not 
bring out the oil. 


Two hard boiled eggs, 1 dozen walnut kernels, 1 
dozen ripe olives, ^ dozen stuffed olives. 

Chop walnut kernels fine ; then chop eggs and olives 
together, adding sufficient mayonnaise to make the 
right consistency to spread. Season with salt, pepper 
or paprika, also a little prepared sweet mustard. After 
having buttered the bread, spread a thin coating of 
sweet mustard, and last, spread on a generous portion 
of the above mixture. Serve with a crisp lettuce leaf 
if desired. 


Mix one-half cup of chopped or pounded nuts with 
one roll of Neufchattel cheese. Can be gotten at any 
good grocery or an equal to it. Spread on slices of 
rye bread, whole wheat, graham, Boston brown, or 
even white bread is nice. Almonds, pecans, butternuts 
or English walnuts may be used. 

Sandwiches must be made thin ; cut bread very thin. 

Lettuce sandwiches are very nice made with three 
leaves of lettuce and two layers of mayonnaise; that 
is : butter one slice of bread, lay on lettuce leaf, then 
mayonnaise, then lettuce leaf, then mayonnaise again, 
then annother lettuce leaf, and last the other slice of 
bread. This gives a good substantial sandwich, and 
the lettuce keeps the mayonnaise from soaking the 



Desserts, as far as possible, like cookery for the 
sick, should be made pleasant surprises, except when 
teaching the children how to make them, and these 
they will do and learn quickly, not speaking of the 
pleasure if affords them. 

They can make the simple desserts themselves while 
their watching the making of pies, cakes, cookies and 
so on is a very interesting study to them and very 
useful to both boys and girls. A little later on they 
can make use of the principles they have learned in 
their school work and in many of the professions or 
trades they may take up. 


One of the easiest desserts and one of the best for 
the weakest stomach, is junket. The recipe is on pack- 
age of tablets, which can be bought at most grocers 
and druggists for ten cents. One package will last a 
long time. A neat little cook book comes with them, 
with principles and recipes for many desserts made 
with junket. The writer knows of only one kind of 
junket — that put up by the Chr. Hansen Laboratory, 
Little Falls, N. Y. It is an excellent lunch for between 
meals for those who require a lunch, and for convales- 
cents. It must be served ice cold or nearly so. 


An excellent recipe may be found on the package of 
Cream of Wheat. Eggs may be left out and twice as 
much Cream of Wheat used. About two or three 


tablespoonfuls of sugar is sufficient; may be eaten 
with plain milk or a simple sauce, or alone. Half of 
the recipe will make neat dishes of dessert for four. 


See recipe for steamed corn bread. For a very small 
family, half the recipe will do. Use just a little less 
flour, as it does not require slicing as even as bread. 
Serve with any of the simple sweet sauces, or it may 
be made like cream of wheat pudding, which is health- 
ier and easier to digest. 


One quart milk, one-half cup sugar, a little salt, one- 
half cup well washed rice, flavor to taste. 

Bake a long time slowly, about one and a half hours, 
stirring occasionally, except towards the last, let it 
brown. Cover at first. 


May be made with cold boiled *rice, say about two 
cups, which has been saved in a covered dish or jelly 
glasses to keep it soft. Break up gently with a spoon, 
add about two cups milk, one or two eggs, one-half 
cup sugar, with one-half teaspoonful of cinnamon, add 
one cup of raisins, if desired. Bake till brown. Eat 
with cream or any simple sauce. One cup of hot water 
may be used instead of all milk. Soften the rice in it. 
Hot boiled rice is excellent for this ; one-fourth cup of 
rice will make one cup boiled rice. 


One Method : — Bake the one egg cake in two layers 
and put sweetened crushed strawberries between and 
on top. 


Another: — Bake the one egg cake In muffin tins and 
serve each cake in individual dishes covered with the 
crushed strawberries. 

Old and probably the best method: — Make a nice 
tender biscuit dough, using plenty of shortening; (see 
recipe for biscuits) ; bake in two layers and split. It 
is easier to split if when rolled out as thin as can be 
handled without breaking, it is buttered or dredged 
with flour, then folded once ; cut to fit two square tins. 
This makes four layers on a platter. 

This last can be cut with baking powder can and 
served individually. 

Strawberries are easily crushed with chopping knife 
or baking powder can used as a chopper. 

Any fruit, some raw and others cooked, can be made 
into shortcake or pudding. Oranges cut fine make a 
delicious shortcake. Canned raspberries or blackber- 
ries are excellent. Apples are nice cut into a shallow 
square tin lined with biscuit dough and just folded 
over, leaving a slit in the center. Some children call 
this "Apple Jack." Bake a rich brown and serve with 

Roly Poly pudding is made on this last principle, 
only the dough is spread with the apples or fruit, rolled 
and steamed three or four hours. Apple Dumplings 
are the same except the dough is cut into squares, ap- 
ples put in the center, folded up and steamed three 

The Roly Poly could be baked in double roaster, two 
or three hours with a little water. 


Grease and almost fill a porcelain or granite pie plate 
with apples, flavor and put over the top, a pie crust'' 
or biscuit dough. Bake a nice brown, serve individu- 


ally, upside down, with a simple sauce or sweetened 
milk or cream. 

English pudding is made the same only use deeper 
dish and bake longer and slower or crust will burn and 
apples won't be done. 


Same principle as above; apples or peaches may be 
used; just warm in the oven, don't sweeten. Cover 
with one egg cake batter and bake real well. Serve 
upside down with sauce or cream. Raised dough can 
be made rich and rolled out, placed the same as Emer- 
gency Pie ; let rise and bake. 


For an invalid, toast the bread, or use zweibach. The 
old rule is two cups bread crumbs, four tablespoonfuls 
melted butter, two teaspoonfuls cinnamon, four, cups 
chopped apples and one cup sugar; arrange in layers 
alternately, spreading the sugar and cinnamon be- 
tween ; first and last layer is bread, but twice bread in- 
stead of apples may be used; add 3 cups of hot water. 
Butter may be spread on top or not or on each slice 
before cutting into crumbs. Bake one hour or little 
more, covered. Uncover at the last to brown on top. 
Simply break the bread in little pieces and slice ap- 
ples between the layers. 

Other fruit betties can be made as well as apple. 
Flavor with raisins or currants if desired. 

SPICED PUDDING (Plum Pudding) 

This can be made the foundation of a suet pudding. 
One cup chopped suet dredged with flour while chop- 
ping, one cup sugar, one cup sour milk (half cream) 
or all sour cream, one egg, one-half teaspoonful each 


of cinnamon, allspice and cloves, one cup seeded rai- 
sins or currants. If raisins, break in two, if time per- 
mits. One teaspoonful not quite rounding of baking 
soda, flour enough to make a good stiff cake batter. 
Steam three hours, longer does not harm it, in baking 
powder cans. If the cream is not at hand, use one cup 
milk and a good tablespoonful of shortening. A little 
less cloves and more cinnamon may be used and a 
tablespoonful or so of molasses, if desired. Serve with 

This can be steamed with veal loaf, only must be 
put over one hour sooner and not disturbed. Handle 
carefully when putting in veal loaf, which has been 
warmed. Brown bread can also be made v/ith it. 

This pudding is excellent baked in -3. shallow loaf 
tin, slowly in the oven for an hour or little more and 
serve as cottage pudding. It should be a very dark 
brown, but not burned. 


Take five tablespoonfuls out of a quart of milk and 
blend with two tablespoonfuls of flour (rounding). 
Put the rest of milk on in double boiler ; when about 
ready to scald, stir in blended flour until it thickens, 
let steam about five minutes, then add three eggs 
mixed with half cup of sugar. Set away to cool. Eat 
without sauce or with a little jelly. Floating Island 
is the same, only the yolks are added to the custard 
and the whites are dropped in spoonfuls or "little 
islands" on the custard while hot in a pudding or serv- 
ing dish and set in the oven for a minute. 


for a patient is made almost the same, only no flour. 
Heat cup of milk in double boiler and beat the white. 
Put white on top of hot milk, cover and let steam 


about two minutes, remove white carefully, put in 
yolk with a teaspoonful of sugar, remove from fire, 
put on a soup plate and put white in center. Let get 
real cold and surprise the patient. It is sort of a 
cooked egg nog. Nice for a child. 


One quart milk, four eggs, beaten separately if de- 
sired, one-half cup of sugar, a little nutmeg or cinna- 
mon, suggestion of salt. Bake in buttered cups or 
pudding dish. If cups are thin, set them in pan of 
hot water. Remove as soon as set or it will curdle. 

Rice custard pudding has a cup or more of soft 
boiled rice added and less eggs. Raisins may be used. 

(For Four) 

Soak bread, fifteen to twenty minutes if very stale, 
otherwise three to five minutes, enough to almost 
fill a quart pan. Squeeze lightly and sort of feather 
it in a baking dish, at the same time putting in a few 
currants and a little cinnamon or none, as desired. 
Pour over all, one egg or two beaten with one-half 
cup of sugar, one-fourth teaspoonful of cinnamon, two 
cups milk (or one and a half cups milk, substituting 
water for other half cup). Press down a little with 
fork and bake three-quarters of an hour. Excellent 
with cinnamon sauce. Nice cold, wrapped in piece of 
parafifin paper for cold lunch. This may be made 
without soaking if about a cup of water is added to 
the milk and the bread broken a little. 


The secret of boiled rice is to have the grains large 
and flaky and well cooked. Wash well, boil in slightly 
salted boiling water for about ten minutes, then place 


in the inside part of double boiler, (drain or not), add 
more boiling water, a little hot milk and one or two 
teaspoonfuls of sugar. Set into the outside boiler and 
steam one hour with the cozy; the last ten minutes 
leave open in the oven. Do not stir, as you break the 
grain. A piece of vanilla bean flavors excellently. If 
for dessert, eat with hard sauce. Allow 54 cup raw 
rice for 1 cup cooked rice. 


Beat the white of one egg with a dash of salt enough . 
to break it a little, in a bowl, then add one cup of 
powdered sugar and one and one-fourth cups of rasp- 
berries, (a little less of the canned or more of the 
fresh). Beat all with a wire whisk till it will hold 
together and shape well. Pile on a serving dish and 
surround with lady fingers or strips of cake in the 
shape of lady fingers or dainty cookies will do. Serve 
with boiled custard or whipped cream. 

PRUNE WHIP (Prune Souffle) 

See recipe for cooked prunes. If the large prunes 
are used, take out about twelve or fourteen after being 
thoroughly simmered, remove stones and press through 
colander or gravy strainer (puree sieve). Add to them 
the whites of three beaten eggs and three tablespoon- 
fuls of granulated sugar (powdered or confectioners' 
if desired). Bake in pudding dish twenty to twenty- 
five minutes. Serve in the same dish, cold, with cream 
or sauce. 

Apple whip can be made the same. 

Either one may be heated in double boiler if room 
enough for rising, instead of baked. Apples should be 
cooked with skins on. Two or three good sized apples 
will make dessert for six. It can also be arranged in 
layers instead of mixed. 



Take a little piece of bread dough on baking day 
and work or pull through it a little shortening and 
sugar. Grease bread board well with dripping or use 
plenty of flour and roll as thin as pie crust, nearly. 
Line a deep dish with this crust. Half fill with stewed 
prunes, (pick out with toothpick so as to get but little 
juice) laid in lightly. Fold crust toward the center. 
Set in warm place till very light. Cover with an in- 
verted granite cake or pie tin that will fit the dish, 
and steam three hours or more. Serve warm with the 
prune juice sweetened a little or a caramel sauce. (See 
cakes). It is nice with cinnamon or lemon sauce. De- 
licious, only crust is a little tough. 


One-half cup butter, one cup boiling water, one cup 
flour, pinch of salt, put butter and water on stove in 
sauce pan. Stir in a cup of flour and pinch of salt 
while boiling, let cool. A novice will doubt its good- 
ness from the appearance. When almost cold, stir in 
three eggs, one at a time, not beaten. Bake in hot 
muffin tins, twenty to thirty minutes. If baked early 
in the morning they are not so tender as" when baked 
about an hour before dinner or before using. 

When ready to serve, open and fill ; put together 

Filling — Whipped cream, cold boiled custard or fill- 
ing for bride's cake (see cakes). An excellent dessert 
for both family and a convalescent. 


One pound of prunes. Put in cold water and set 
on back of stove till well warriied, then wash thor- 
oughly (this should be done night before if soaked all 


night, as they should be cooked in the same water as 
soaked in), and put them in plenty of hot water with 
about three slices of lemon and three or four table- 
spoonfuls of sugar; let simmer on back of stove about 
three or four hours, with cozies. (Two hours will 
do if soaked all night), till juice is a nice syrup. A 
little of the skin may be left on the lemon, to get the 
flavor of the oil of lemon. 

More sugar is required for a cheap grade of prunes. 
Keep covered till cold so that prunes will puff. 

Nice for fruit for breakfast, dessert for dinner with 
cookies, or sauce for supper. Excellent. 

Follow same rule for all dried fruits, which can be 
used in several ways. 


If good apples, simply core and bake. Poor apples 
may be halved or quartered and all badness removed. 
Do not peel. Bake in rather quick oven in a covered 
pudding dish, making sort of a double roaster. If de- 
sired, baste with little sweetened water. Excellent 
served cold for breakfast with cream, or very nice 
warm for dessert with any nice pudding sauce. One 
should have them as often as possible while in season. 




Half a brick of maple sugar, broken a little, cover 
with hot water. Boil till a nice (rather thick) syrup. 
When needed, just heat and add cup of English wal- 
nuts, broken. Serve hot on ice cream. Serve quickly. 


One ounce stick cinnamon, one pint boiling water 
(two cups) ; boil fifteen minutes, strain, bottle and 
use for mixtures requiring cinnamon water. 


Mix one tablespoonful flour with cup of sugar 
and two-thirds teaspoonful of cinnamon (ground). 
Thoroughly mix dry. Add two cups of boiling water 
and stir till thick. Set on back of stove for four to 
five minutes. Add butter and pinch of salt when 
done, if desired. 

Nutmeg sauce can be made the same way, substitut- 
ing ys teaspoonful of nutmeg for cinnamon. Very 
nice made in double boiler and let steam ten minutes 
after thickening. 


Mix flour and sugar same as for cinnamon sauce, 
and boiling water also. When done, add piece of but- 
ter and two tablespoonfuls of brandy. A pinch of 
salt with all these sauces improves taste. 



Same as brandy, only flavor with one-third to one- 
half cup of wine or more. 


Same as above, only add sliced lemon, leaving the 
rind on two or three slices to get the flavor of lemon 
oil. Serve one piece on each dish of pudding. Nice 
served on cottage pudding baked in muffin tins. Each 
person has an individual pudding then. 


Two cups sugar, one-half cup water. Stir until 
sugar dissolves. After dissolving, cook slowly eight 
to ten minutes, then bottle and keep. This may be 
used to sweeten ice cream. Nice for pancakes, etc., 
but use two or three times as much water. 


Grated rind and juice of one lemon, three-fourths of 
a cup of sugar, one-half cup of water for filling or one 
for sauce, one tablespoonful of corn starch, or two of 
flour (half this much for the sauce). Blend flour or 
corn starch with a little water. Boil all together and 
just before taking from the fire, add one beaten egg 
with pinch of salt and a little of the same sugar. 


Use milk, or half milk and water, instead of water, 
the same as for the cinnamon sauce, and a little more 
sugar, and two tablespoonfuls of scraped or grated 
chocolate. Stir till smooth or use milk and chocolate 
in above recipe instead of lemon and water. 



One-half cup butter, one and one-half cups of pow- 
dered sugar. Flavor with vanilla or lemon to taste 
(one to two teaspoonfuls). Cream butter and sugar as 
for cake. Very nice with boiled rice. 


One pint of milk (two cups) one and one-half table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, yolks of three eggs, beaten well. 
Make in double boiler and remove soon as thick or it 
will curdle. When cold, add vanilla. 


See caramel filling for cake. Make a little thinner 
than for cake. 



Pies we will have in spite of their being condemned ; 
but if used judiciously they are not so harmful. People 
working out of doors can use them once a week and 
in very cold weather twice a week, but in hot weather 
as little as possible. Long, moderate baking will aid 
the digestion of them. In making pastry, the starch 
granules are enveloped in the fat and so are not acted 
upon by the saliva in the mouth or in the stomach (the 
fat being partly digested in the stomach) and, there- 
fore, not digested until it reaches the small intestines. 
Hence, the use of too much pie and cake causes in- 
testinal indigestion, the tired feeling of spring being 
one of the symptoms. 

Pastry is of two kinds, plain and puff. The puff 
paste is made by simply spreading the plain crust with 
shortening, doubling and rolling several times. Light- 
ness depends on amount of air enclosed, and the flaki- 
ness depends on the kind of shortening used. Lard 
makes a very tender crust; unsalted butter, a nice fla- 
vored cotolene and cotosuet are cheap and wholesome 
if manufactured properly. The secret of good pie crust 
is to thoroughly mix shortening with flour and use as 
little water as posible. It is easier to use hands than a 
knife, and is sanitary if hands are well washed and' 
then rinsed in cold water to close pores, then dried. 

Nearly all fruit pies require deep tins. A cylinder 
of writing or paraffin paper placed in the center of top 
crust will prevent running over ; or run a strip of clean 
wet white cloth around the outside. 


A fork, scissors, or little fancy pie crimper may be 
used for crimping edge, 

Set pies on wire rest after baking, to cool quickly 
on the bottom and prevent soaking. 

Lemon pie crust is very nice baked on the outside 
of the pan turned upside down. Patties the same. 


For a one-crust pie use a good cup of sifted flour, 
a heaping tablespoonful of lard, two-thirds rounding 
teaspoonful of salt. When thoroughly mixed, add here 
and there, lightly, about three tablespoonfuls water, 
stirring from outside to center, making pastry stick 
together; roll out. For two crusts take about one and 
one-half times the ingredients. 


Two cups milk, 4 tablespoonfuls sugar, 1 table- 
spoonful corn starch and 2 tablespoonfuls flour, 3^ to 
^ teaspoonful vanilla, whipped cream. 

Bake crust as for lemon pie, first. Put milk in dou- 
ble boiler. When near boiling point add flour and 
corn starch blended. Stir till thickens. Sugar may 
be added with flour or when about to take off. When 
nicely done (may steam with cozy on 15 to 30 min- 
utes) remove from stove, add vanilla and pour in pie 
crust to set. When ready to serve put whipped cream 
over the top or a tablespoonful on each piece. Ex- 
cellent. This or plain custard is dehcious over sliced 
bananas. Crust baked first. 


One cup sugar, 2 cups hot water, yolks of 2 eggs, 2 
tablespoonfuls corn starch or 4 of flour, grated rind 
and juice of one lemon, butter size of egg, just a wee 
bit of salt. 


Have crust baked, stick with a fork in five or six 
places before putting in oven, or bake on outside of tin 
inverted. Wet corn starch in a Httle water, then mix 
in yolks. Have water hot, stir in corn starch, also 
lemon. Stir until thick, add sugar and butter. Fill 
crust and put beaten whites on top. Add a tablespoon- 
ful of sugar to each white of egg and brown a little 
in the oven. Very good. 

It is better if the corn starch is well cooked first, 
about one-half hour, and yolks added after removing 
from fire; this is more scientific and easier digested. 
Also, do not add the butter until just ready to pour in 
the pie crust. 

ONE EGG LEMON PIE (Very cheap and easy) 

This is very little work if one happens to have some 
unbaked pie crust left over. Roll out, fit in tin, stick 
with fork and bake a delicate brown. It may be put 
on outside of tin. 

Just a little over one-half of a breakfast cup of sugar. 
Juice of one-half lemon (}i will do), 1 cup hot water 
(or l}i cups), iy2 heaping tablespoonfuls of flour, a 
suggestion of salt. 

Mix the egg and one-fourth of the sugar in a cup 
or small bowl, add the lemon juice to this before put- 
ting it with the cooked part. Mix the rest of the sugar 
and the flour thoroughly (dry as for sauce) in a little 
pint double boiler — or a little sauce pan may be set 
into a larger one with two or three little pebbles under 
it to keep the water from being forced out on the 
stove, also prevents burning. Add to this the hot 
water in which the skin of the lemon has been cooked 
a few minutes for flavor. Stir until thick and then 
set in to steam for about fifteen minutes to cook the 


flour better. Add egg and lemon juice and let stand 
about half a minute longer, then pour into the baked 
crust and set away to cool. The white of an egg may 
be separated and beaten, a tablespoonful of sugar 
added and decorate the top like floating island or in 
circles of white, and brown a minute or two in the 
oven. Egg must be strictly fresh to do this. Put on 
while filling is hot so it will cook from the bottom. 


For very sour apples use a breakfast cup of sugar 
to a small pie or almost 1^^ cups to a large pie. Put 
half the sugar on the bottom crust. If apples are cut 
fine, simply pour them in; if cored and cut in rather 
fine sections, lay in on sugar in nice order about two 
layers deep. Shake a little cinnamon or nutmeg, or 
drop some lemon juice here and there. Put the other 
half of the sugar over the apples and after wetting the 
edge of bottom crust with water and cutting a few 
slits in upper crust, put it on carefully and paste edge 
well with thumbs to the edge of the bottom crust. 
Bake moderately from one-half to three-quarters of an 
hour, just a nice brown. The better baked, the easier 
to digest. In summer green apples should be steamed 
or simmered until almost tender, unless of a mellow 
kind. Bits of butter over the apples adds much to the 
flavor, but it is good without any flavoring. Mild ap- 
ples require about one-quarter less sugar. 


Do not peel the rhubarb. Cut in fine pieces or 
about one inch lengths. Proceed as with apple pie 
only a heaping teaspoonful of flour may be mixed 
with the sugar and leave out flavoring. 


GRAPE PIE (Excellent) 

On the very same principle as apple pie. Separate 
the pulp from the skins. Boil pulp about five or seven 
minutes, stirring so as to break them quickly, and rub 
through gravy strainer. This is a very quick method 
of removing the seeds. It will be nearly cold when 
through the sieve. Now pour the juice over the skins, 
having arranged them nicely in bottom crust over half 
of the sugar. Put the other half of sugar over all and 
then put on the top crust same as for apple pie. 


Four good rounding tablespoonfuls of pumpkin, ^ 
cups of sweet milk (if you must use it a little old, put in 
a pinch of baking soda), 1 rounding teaspoonful of 
ginger, }i teaspoonful of nutmeg, 2 tablespoonfuls of 
molasses, J^ cup of sugar, 3 eggs, pinch of salt. Fresh, 
canned or dried pumpkin may be used. If the fresh, 
simmer three or four hours on the back of stove and 
then dry out a little more in the open oven, stirring 
occasionally. If dried, soak all night in very fresh 
milk or soft water, just enough to be absorbed. Then 
smooth with a spoon and use as other pumpkin. A 
little less sugar and more pumpkin may be used. 


Use same recipe as for pumpkin pie. Either of these 
may be steamed or baked and then mashed. Squash 
is very nice made in a custard pie flavored with grated 
lemon rind or extract. 


Foundation of recipe is the pumpkin pie, only use 
two tablespoonfuls of chocolate instead of four and 
leave out spices, substituting vanilla if desired. Use 


one cup of water instead of all milk and add two table- 
spoonfuls of flour to sugar. 

Eggs may be left out or used ; if used, one to a table- 
spoonful of flour is sufficient. Boil sugar, flour, milk 
and water, as in "one egg lemon pie," add eggs about 
one-half minute before pouring into baked crust. If 
not decorated, set away to cool. Serve plain, or with 
whipped cream, or decorated with white of egg like 
lemon pie. For a quick and also nourishing dessert 
the plain is very good. A little more sugar may be 
used if desired very sweet. 



I will simply give a few of the principles, as they 
are so simple and easy to make one can make up many 
different recipes. Oftentimes little booklets are found 
containing excellent recipes. 

Sherbets differ from ice cream and ices in beating 
whites of eggs and gelatine may be added. 

Frappe is ice shaved with fruit juice poured over it, 
generally flavored with lemon and sugar. 

Punches come between sherbets and frappe and 
have liquor added. Sherbets never have liquor. 

Mousses are whipped cream, with flavoring and 
crushed fresh fruit or canned fruit added and frozen 
or chilled. 

Ices are fruit juice, water and sugar frozen. 

A good, strong lemonade, well sweetened and 
strained, makes an excellent lemon ice. Orangeade 
flavored with lemon juice makes an excellent orange 

Any fruit juice, fresh or canned, makes nice ices. 

Gelatine should be first soaked in cold water, then 
in warm to take off gluey taste. It is soluable at sim- 
mering point, but gets no harder at boiling point. The 
better the gelatine the less gluey taste it has. Excel- 
lent recipes are found on packages. 

Fruit may be added to ice cream after it is frozen, 
and let stand for an hour to ripen. 

Plain ice cream is delicious served with hot maple 
sauce. Put a tablespoonful on the top of each dish 
and serve quickly. 


Use three parts of ice and one of coarse or rock salt 
for freezing. 

Do not use corn starch or flour in ice cream for an 
invalid, and if not permitted sugar, milk sugar or 
saccharine oftentimes are permitted. 

A baking powder can and dinner or lard pail and 
silver knife for a dash, make a good individual freezer 
for an invalid, or a little toy freezer makes about three 


Let apple sauce and whipped cream get very cold 
and mix together. Might be called apple snow. 

Gooseberries may be prepared the same. 

Layers of oranges and cocoanut (grated). 

Sponge cake (left over) with jelly and whipped 
cream. (Charlotte Russe). 

Chocolate Blanc Mange in cups or mold, with cream. 

Baked apples with cream or a pudding sauce. 

Sliced bananas and cream. 



One pound of cheese, which is a valuable dairy pro- 
duct, made of whole milk or skimmed milk, contains 
nearly as much nourishment as three of meat — that is, 
it has as much proteid as two pounds of meat, and as 
much fat as three pounds. 

Some do not appreciate the value of cheese because 
it is eaten in the wrong way and at the wrong time ; 
for instance, a Welsh rarebit or cheese sandwich before 
going to bed is very bad. Eaten alone it is very indi- 
gestible, but in connection with milk or other foods, 
a small amount, about one-half to one ounce, is very 
good. Some scientists say it aids digestion, being a 
ferment. Most of the poor of Switzerland carry noth- 
ing but bread and cheese in their lunch. 

Many nice dishes can be made for supper or lunch- 
eon, out of cheese, and cheese is excellent occasionally 
for those who carry lunch and cannot afford meat. 

In earlier times cheese was only served with pie and 
doughnuts, and but one kind was known — the ordinary 
everyday cheese. Gradually, one by one, others came 
into use, until now we have a number to select from. 
The different names for foreign cheese is due more 
to the places at which they are made than to the pro- 
cess, while the American cheese, no matter where it is 
made, seems to be known only as American cheese. 
Some factories ship a great deal to the foreign market, 
where our cheese is highly appreciated. It has a 
sharper flavor than the foreign cheese. Some have 
been found adulterated, which is often the cause of in- 
digestion. Some of the best American cheese is made 


in New York, the climate and pasturage being espec- 
ially adapted for it. The cheapest and best known of 
foreign cheeses are imitated in America, so that they 
can be bought saving tariff. Most of us who desire 
to like cheese for its nutritive value often have to cul- 
tivate the taste for foreign cheese, as the flavor at first 
is unpleasant. 

No cheese, even though dried, should ever be thrown 
away, as it can be used with macaroni, eggs, escal- 
loped potatoes, etc. In the following recipes the ordin- 
ary American cheese is meant unless specified. Red 
pepper and mustard are used very much to flavor 
cheese. Ml cheese dishes should be served quickly 
and piping hot. 


Scald a pan of thick sour milk over the fire, or 
place it in the open oven, stirring a little so it will heat 
evenly, but do not boil, as that makes it tough. It may 
be placed on the hearth or in the open oven. Then, 
pouring into a clean cheese cloth bag, squeeze out all 
the water till it is quite dry, or let drain three or four 
hours and do not squeeze at all. Now turn it into a 
basin and add a little sweet cream or melted butter 
and salt to taste. Either serve in a bowl or dish 
whole or make into little balls and serve on a platter 
or individually. Some add a teaspoonful or so of 
sugar and a suggestion of cayenne or nutmeg. It is 
nice served in jelly glasses. Be careful not to let the 
milk get too old. It is more nourishing if cream is left 
on the milk. 


One-half cup each of butter, flour, bread crumbs and 
grated cheese. Mix and roll thin. Flour the board 
well, cut in strips a finger long and one inch wide. 


Lay on sheet of buttered paper and brown in oven. 
Very little pepper but no salt. Nice served with salad, 
coffee, pie or doughnuts. Very rich and to be eaten 
only as one would eat cheese. 

CHEESE ON TOAST (Mock Welsh Rarebit) 

One cup of milk, one egg (beaten), one cup grated 
cheese, one-half teaspoonful- mustard (scant), a very 
little salt, dash of cayenne pepper or flavor to taste 
with other pepper. Put milk on in double boiler, with 
pinch of soda (if milk is not strictly fresh) ; when 
scalded, add egg and other ingredients, remove as 
quick as thick or it will curdle. Pour over platter of 
buttered toast and serve at once. About one table- 
spoonful or better is plenty on an ordinary slice of 
toast. Nice for supper or luncheon with creamed po- 


Grate cheese over salted wafers, put in dripping pan 
and heat in oven. 


This is usually made in a chafing dish but can be 
made in double boiler on any range or stove. 

One cup ale, one tablespoonful butter and one-half 
pound or little less of cheese grated or shaved fine. 
Put these three in double boiler and cover. Mix dry 
one-fourth teaspoonful mustard, pinch of cayenne and 
about two teaspoonfuls celery salt. Add these with 
two well beaten eggs to the melted ingredients, being 
careful not to curdle. Prevent this by lifting the hot 
cheese a minute or mixing a little with the eggs first ; 
stir well till thick, about two or three minutes. When 
removed, add one teaspoonful of lemon juice or Wor- 
cestershire sauce, or one teaspoonful of each. Serve 
at once on toast. 



Melt one ounce or about one rounding tablespoonful 
of butter in a double boiler; mix with it one table- 
spoonful of flour, a pinch of salt and cayenne; then 
add nearly one and one-half cups of sweet milk with 
a pinch of soda stirred well into it; stir constantly 
till rather thick, then add two cupfuls of grated or 
shaved cheese, one cup of bread crumbs and two beaten 
eggs. When all stirred together it should be soft and 
creamy. Add a little scalded milk if necessary or 
some with a tiny pinch of soda. Put into a tin or 
granite pan, filling only half full as it rises very light, 
and cover with a heated cover, if possible. Bake about 
twenty minutes and serve the moment it is baked, in 
the same dish. 

The above is nice served on buttered toast from the 
double boiler. It may be baked in patty pans but 
must be served hot. This is sometimes called Fonda- 
min or Fondue. The flour may be baked that is used 
to thicken it. 


Take some pie crust or puff paste that is left over 
and roll out evenly. Sprinkle with grated cheese and 
fold, roll again and sprinkle more cheese. Fold and 
roll, cut with baking powder can or any desirable 
shape and bake ten to fifteen minutes in brisk oven. 
They look nicer if brushed with yolk of Ggg before 
baking. Serve hot. 


Cut slices of bread and out of these cut rounds with 
baking powder can or any desired shape. Warm 
through in oven, butter lightly; then spread upon 
them the mixture like cheese souffle or cheese on toast 
and brown in the oven. Serve hot. 



Simply melted cheese flavored and served on hot 

For omelets and sandwiches, see chapters on Eggs 
and Sandwiches. 



One doctor says pie and cake are an insult to the 
stomach, but as there is such a demand, I will give a 
few recipes, keeping as close to the digestive princi- 
ples as possible. 

Use either as little as possible. 

Everything should be in order for cake before be- 
ginning the cake itself, and the first to be in order is 
one's self — the hair being fixed so no loose hairs are 
liable to fall, and the hands and nails clean. The 
kitchen table should be cleared of everything not 
needed and provide everything needed, measuring 
what should be. 

Broom splints or straws can be picked from the 
broom while it is new and laid away for cake use in 
a drawer or box; a knitting needle may be used in- 

Grease the tins with fresh lard or dripping (unfla- 
vored) before starting the cake. 

Eggs should be cold ; if no ice-box is at hand, place 
them in cold water before starting cake. Only fresh 
eggs can be beaten stiff; waste no time trying to make 
old eggs stiff. 

If the oven is inclined to burn on the bottom, use 
two or three thicknesses of parafifin paper in bottom 
of pan, greasing the top piece; line the sides also if 
necessary, A grate or some asbestos paper can be used 
on bottom of oven instead. 

Do not melt butter used in cake. In cold weather 
cut in small pieces and warm a little. When cream 


of tartar and soda is used, mix the cream of tartar 
with the flour. Do likewise with- baking powder. Soda 
should be measured as carefully as a powerful drug. 
When sifting flour more than once, two newspapers 
are handy as it pours easily into the sieve. 

To start nearly all cakes, beat the butter and sugar 
to a cream, then add the milk slowly, or the eggs may 
be added first except where beaten separately; save 
the whites till the last thing. 

When using baking powder, work quickly, as it 
effervesces only once. Have the oven rather moderate 
at first, till the batter is heated evenly, for if too hot, 
it will form a crust on the outside, then the center 
will break through and the cake will crack open on 
the top. The cake will be lighter if the oven is not too 
hot at first. 

If very particular, roll the sugar, and for very nice 
cake use powdered sugar. When soda is used, dissolve 
it in a very little luke warm water or milk or mix with 
the flour after some experience in cake making. 

Fruit should always be rolled in flour and added the 
last thing. When flavoring is used, it should not be 
added till the last thing, though some have excellent 
success by adding it to the creamed butter and sugar. 

Beat cake but one way, bring the batter up from 
the bottom at every stroke, thus driving the air into 
the cells of the batter instead of out. It is not neces- 
sary to beat hard but thoroughly from three to five 
minutes ; some cakes require ten minutes. This makes 
a fine grained cake. For this reason a rounding cake 
bowl or a nice granite wash basin can be kept for this 
purpose; earthen or stone ware is best. It is well to 
remember that not all flours act alike; it requires a 
little more of some than others. 

There are four causes for streaks in cake — poor mix- 
ing, baking too fast, baking too slow at the last, and 


not baking evenly as it should. Very little practice 
with either wood or gas will correct this. 

If the cake should be too stiff when mixed, add a 
few teaspoonfuls of milk; water will make it tough. 

When using soda, if milk is not sour enough, add a 
little cream of tartar or baking powder to the flour. 
In using baking powder, if milk is turned a little, add 
a little soda to it, though the fresher the milk is the 
more nourishment it contains. 

Soda is alkaline and cream of tartar is acid, and when 
a liquid is added to the two, it forms a gas, carbon- 
dioxide, which escapes heated or not heated; this raises 
the mixture. Cream of tartar is made from a substance 
on wine casks. 

Ascetic acid is the acting substance on soda which 
is found in sour milk, molasses, vinegar, etc., hence, 
soda is always used with sour milk, about one-half 
teaspoonful, scant or level, to a cup. 

The least amount of baking powder used the better; 
when eggs are used, about 1^ level teaspoonfuls or 
^ of a good teaspoonful to a cup of flour is plenty, 
and when eggs are not used, use one good teaspoonful 
to a cup of flour. 

Sour milk should not be used after it becomes wat- 
ery ; it is spoiled, containing poison, although the 
more sour the milk, the lighter the cake or biscuit. It 
can stand for a day or so without spoiling after it be- 
comes thick. 

Alum and other drugs should never be used; they 
are very injurious and affect the stomach and nerves. 
It is safer to make your own baking powder, (a recipe 
will be given), bread, etc., though the high priced bak- 
ing powders are generally pure. Some cakes are made 
very successfully contrary to the principles. 

Some, learning to cook, may get discouraged be- 
cause of the first few failures, but if they will only re- 


member "practice makes perfect," they will succeed 
in time. Keep at it till it does come right; read and 
re-read the principles and each time may reveal some 
little mistake. As everyone has on hand a supply of 
cake recipes, I will give but a few, both cheap and ex- 
pensive. The expensive ones are meant for Christmas, 
Easter and anniversaries or other occasions which we 
all like to be as joyful and nice as we can afiford. 
• Among the most delicate of cakes and the one least 
injurious to the system, is the sponge cake. Most 
everyone has a recipe for this, and for those who have 
tiot, I will give mine. A pinch of salt can be used in 
any cake. 

In most of these recipes, the rounding teaspoonfuls 
and tablespoonfuls are meant. 


Three eggs, }i cup sugar, 1^ rounding teaspoonfuls 
of baking powder, 1 cup milk, 3 cups of sifted flour; 
flavor if desired. No shortening. 

Beat yolks and whites separately. Mix half of the 
yolks, half of the sugar and all of the milk a little; 
then put in half of the flour, which has been well mixed 
with the baking powder, and mix a little more; then 
the other half of the ingredients, mixing a little, and 
last the whites; beat lightly about two minutes and 
bake in a dripping pan, or bake in two layer tins and 
put jelly between. Mix the jelly in a bowl with a 
spoon till it is of a consistency to spread. Some add 
hot water, about one-half a cup, to the cake at the 
last, to make it bake more evenly, but I prefer getting 
the oven just right. Avoid getting it too hot and still 
hot enough. This cake is only nice the same day it 
is made. The next day it can be used with whipped 
cream and jelly or a little cheap pudding sauce, for 
dessert, (Charlotte russe). Nice for layer jelly cake 



or rolled jelly cake if hot water is added. When baked 
in the dripping pan, it makes a very pretty cake with 
chocolate frostmg and hickory nuts arranged in differ- 
ent ways ; should be inverted till cold and frosted when 

WHITE CAKE (Aunt Bridgid's Cake) 

One rounding tablespoonful of butter, 1 cup of milk, 
1 cup of sugar, 2 cups of flour with 1^ teaspoonfuls 
baking powder, whites of 4 eggs beaten stiff. 

Mix as any cake, adding the whites last. Bake in a 
rather shallow, square tin, or may be baked in two 
large layers. Very good. 


This is an all around cake for common use, very 
easy to make. Baked in a loaf, it makes a very nice 
cottage pudding for dessert, or baked in muffin tins, 
which I call a cottage pudding in cup form, or indi- 
vidual puddings served with a lemon sauce, putting a 
thin slice of lemon on top of each little cake ; it is very 
nice served with other pudding sauces or baked in two 
layers, may be used for any kind of a layer cake, or 

One tablespoonful of butter or drippings, or half of 
each (lard can be used with ^ teaspoonful of salt), 
1 egg (not beaten), }^ cup of milk or a little more, ^ 
cup of sugar or less, 1)4 heaping cups of sifted flour, 
1^ teaspoonfuls of baking powder (a little less is bet- 

This makes two small layers. If large layers are 
wanted, use a whole cup of milk and nearly two cups 
of flour, V/2 to 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder; beat 
well about three minutes. It makes a nice loaf, flav- 
ored with cinnamon or chopped nuts or by itself. 

In case of emergency, the above can be made with- 


out egg, but it is not so nice, and just a very little 
more baking powder, milk and shortening is then 
needed. Two eggs seem to make it extra nice. 


Beat yolks and whites of two eggs separately, then 
mix both together, add 1 cup of sugar; beat well and 
add 1 cup of flour, sifted, with 1 large teaspoonful of 
baking powder ; mix and add ^ cup of boiling water 
and a teaspoonful of vanilla ; spread smooth and bake 
in a quick oven (not too hot). Spread with jelly and 
roll. Some lay it on a damp towel before spreading. 


Three cups of sugar, 1 cup butter, 4 eggs, 4 cups 
sifted flour, 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder, 1 cup sweet 
milk, 15^ cups raisins (seeded) and chopped fine, 1 
teaspoonful each of allspice and cinnamon, }i tea- 
spoonful cloves, y2 teaspoonful ginger, ^ teaspoonful 
of nutmeg. 

Mix butter and sugar a little. Break eggs in with- 
out beating, and beat about two minutes, then add 
other ingredients and beat about five minutes. May 
be spiced to taste. From start to finish the beating 
should take ten minutes. Very good. 


One cup sugar, ^ cup butter, ^ cup sweet milk, 2 
eggs, 2 cups flour, ly^ teaspoonfuls baking powder. 

This is nice baked in layers or baked in a loaf in a 
shallow square tin or dripping pan. 


One-half cake sweet chocolate mixed with y^ cup 
of sweet milk. Set bowl with these two in tea kettle 
for four or five minutes, then add yolk of one egg and 


one teaspoonful vanilla, stir rapidly until thick.. This 
filling is nice with chopped hickory nuts or filling put 
on top and decorated with half hickory nut meats be- 
fore it hardens. 


Whites of 7 eggs, yolks of 5 eggs, 1% cups sugar, 
1 scant cup flour, ^ teaspoonful cream tartar, pinch 
of salt. 

Beat whites and yolks separately. Do not beat after 
flour is added, and mixed. Sift sugar and cream of 
tartar into whites of eggs (it is better to add cream of 
tartar to eggs when half beaten). Line pan with para- 
ffin paper and bake forty minutes. Excellent. This 
is a delicate cake and most invalids can have it for a 


One and one-half cups of sugar, ^/^ cup of butter, 
whites of three eggs beaten to a froth, 1 cup of milk, 
3 cups of flour, 3 teaspoonfuls baking powder. First 
beat butter and sugar to a cream, then add milk, flour 
and baking powder and the whites of the three eggs. 
Bake in layers or in a shallow loaf tin. Put frost- 
ing between and on top. 


One cup milk, 2 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls sugar, flavor 
to taste. Heat milk in double boiler, add eggs and stir 
till it thickens, only do not allow it to curdle by cook- 
ing too long. Very expensive when eggs are high, 
but very good. 


Two cups sugar, Y^ cup butter, 2 cups flour, 1 tea- 
spoonful soda (scant), 2 eggs, 1 cup sour milk, ^ cup 
hot water, 1 s(5[uare or 1 ounce chocolate. 


Beat eggs, cream butter and sugar, add milk, put 
hot water over chocolate to melt it, mix soda with lit- 
tle warm water, beat all for three minutes. Bake in 
two layers or a loaf, in a moderate oven. 


Part 1 — One cup of white sugar, y^ cup of butter, Yz 
cup of sweet milk, 2 eggs, 1 even teaspoonful baking 
soda mixed with 2 cups of flour. Mix dry and sift. 
Some prefer 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder. 

Part 2 — One-half cup of bitter chocolate, Yi cup of 
sweet milk, 1 cup of brown sugar, boil this in a double 
boiler until thickened and then cool. Then mix 2 tea- 
spoonfuls of vanilla, mix all with No. 1 or Part 1. 
Bake in three layers. 


One cup of sugar, ^ pound of figs chopped fine, boil 
till tender with a little water, then place between 

This cake will keep two weeks. Very nice. 


One pound butter, 1 pound brown sugar, 1 dozen 
eggs, 1 pound flour (about 4 cups sifted), 2 pounds rai- 
sins, 1 pound currants, 1 pound nuts, half almonds and 
walnuts, 1 pound citron (or 5^ pound citron and >4 
pound mixed candied orange and lemon peel), 4 small 
nutmegs (grated), and cloves, mace and cinnamon 
enough to make a level saucerful, 1 cup brandy, 1 cup 
molasses, 1 level tablespoonful of soda. Mix as other 
cakes, with the exception that the soda is mixed with 
brandy and the fruit is dredged with the flour which 
is measured for the cake. No extra flour should be 
used. This makes four loaves about the size of an 
ordinary five-cent loaf of bread. An extra pound of 


raisins, ^ pound of figs and 1 pound dates may be 
added. It will then make five loaves. These make it a 
very moist cake. This cake costs from $2.00 to $2.50 
in these days of high prices. 


One cup sugar, 1 cup molasses, 1 cup sour cream, 
2 eggs, 1 teaspoonful soda, 1 cup raisins or currants, 
1 teaspoonful ginger, 1 teaspoonful cinnamon, )^ tea- 
spoonful cloves, Yz teaspoonful allspice, 1 small nut- 
meg, 3^ cups sifted flour. Bake in mufiin tins and 
frost, if desired. Currants are nicer than raisins, if 
washed, drained on a towel and dredged with flour. 
One-fourth teaspoonful ground nutmeg may be used 
in place of the nutmeg. 

Both cookies and doughnuts can be made very suc- 
cessfully with the recipe for the one ^%% cake, using 
a little less shortening for doughnuts and a little more 
for cookies. Of course, flour is added to make a 
dough. Both should be handled as little as possible, 
and be as soft ; also as quickly. 


One-half cup sugar, 2 well beaten eggs, 1 cup milk, 1 
tablespoonful of drippings can be used or not, 1 tea- 
spoonful vanilla, 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder. 

Sift baking powder with enough flour to make a 
soft dough. Roll and cut, fry in deep fat. 

DOUGHNUTS NO. 2 (Sour Milk) 

One cup sugar, 3 tablespoonfuls melted butter, a 
good pinch salt, 34 teaspoonful cinnamon or y% nut- 
meg, V/z cups sour milk, Yj, teaspoonful soda, 2 eggs, 
1 heaping teaspoonful baking powder. Mix the above 
ingredients well together, then add baking powder 
and flour. Make as soft as you can handle. 



(With cocoanut) 

Beat until light 3 eggs and 1 cup of sugar; to this 
add }i cup of cocoanut, add 1 cup of sweet cream, 1 
teaspoonful salt, 3 cups of flour, sifted, with 3 tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder. Mix well, set away about 
an hour, roll out and sprinkle with sugar and cocoanut 
to about ^ inch thick, 


Three cups flour, 1 cup butter or lard, 1 cup sugar, 
a pinch of salt, 2 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls sour milk or 
cream, 1 teaspoonful soda, vanilla to taste. Mix flour 
and shortening well as for pie crust. Stir the other 
ingredients, which have been beaten together, into 
the butter and flour. Just think of pie crust and these 
will be a grand success. (Excellent). 


There are three kinds of sugar used in making 
frostings and fillings — granulated, powdered and con- 

The granulated moistened and boiled just a little, 
and mixed with either of the other two, makes a cheap 

For the boiled icing the granulated is used. 

With the powdered sugar, milk, cream or white of 
tgg makes a nice frosting. 

With the_ confectioners' sugar, water alone is suf- 
ficient. Spread on and when it hardens, spread on 
another coat and so on till thick as desired. If dec- 
orations are to be used, decorate while soft. Raw hick- 
ory nuts are a delicious flavoring as well as decoration 
in almost any frosting or filling. A little practice will 
make any of the following perfect. 


The confectioners' sugar simply wet with white of 
egg and mixed with different things, as chocolate, etc., 
molded into little cakes and nuts put on top while 
soft, makes many varieties of choice candy, such as 
chocolate creams, walnut creams, etc. 


One cup granulated sugar, %. cup boiling water, or 
little better, white of 1 egg, % teaspoonful of cream of 

Boil water and sugar together till it spins a heavy 
thread, which only takes about five minutes. Add 
cream of tartar to the beaten white and pour boiling 
sugar over it slowly with the left hand v»^hile the right 
hand is constantly stirring it till it thickens. Flavor 
to taste or nice without flavoring. It may be well 
to let sugar cool just a trifle before pouring. This is 
for a small cake. For a large cake, double this recipe. 
If boiled too much, frosting will be too hard, then add 
a little thin sugar syrup ; if not boiled enough, and too 
soft, add a little confectioners' sugar. 


One cup of sugar, 4^ tablespoonfuls of water, 3 
ounces chocolate (2 little squares), (this can be easily 
measured when you consider 8 ounces to ^ pound, 
about 4 good tablespoonfuls) ; whites of 1 or 2 eggs, 
according to size of cake. 

The process is same as above recipe, only add the 
filling to the chocolate slowly, which has been grated 
or scraped very fine, and in a warm bowl on back of 
range or set in warm water. Vice versa, the melted 
chocolate may be added to the filling or mixed with 
the boiled sugar before pouring over the egg. 


BOILED FROSTING (for two large cakes) 

One large cup granulated sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls hot 
water, whites of 3 eggs, 1 cup of hickory nuts chopped 

Moisten the sugar with the hot water and boil 
briskly for five minutes or until it spins a thread or 
feathers, as some say. Have whites of eggs beaten 
stiff, and with left hand pour the boiled syrup in a 
slow stream upon the whites, beating with the right 
hand all the time. Add nuts. One-half cup of peanut 
butter or almond paste can be used instead of nuts, 
but the nuts seem to tickle the palate. It is an excel- 
lent frosting without anything added, and never fails. 


Allow one heaping teacup of powdered sugar to 
the white of one egg. Beat the whites just a little till 
beginning to foam; the old hard method is exertion 
for nothing. Add the sugar all at once or gradually, 
as considered easier to mix; when mixed, it is ready 
for use ; flavor if desired. It is well to fill the cake as 
soon as taken from the oven ; the outside can be frosted 
when cold or nearly so. One egg v/ill frost a good 
sized cake. This frosting can be completed in ten min- 


Can be made like the above, or simply made with 
cold water, milk or cream, lemon juice, strong lem- 
onade, etc. It will mix easier if the sugar is rolled 
first. The sugars can be mixed (powdered and con- 
fectioners'). Cocoanut frosting is better with another 
layer of plain frosting over it. 



For yellow frosting, use yolk of egg" instead of 
white. Either of the above may be used for ornament- 
ing a chocolate or boiled icing, by making a paper 
funnel and putting the frosting in it. Squeeze slowly 
so it will run in little fine lines. Follow any little 
simple design, as Grecian border, leaves, wheels, 
beads, etc. Cut designs from papers or magazines and 
use for a pattern, transfer to pasteboard first, and cut 
out with a pocket knife. Grated orange or lemon peel 
or fruit juice from canned fruit, can be used to color. 
Do not use white of lemon or orange, simply the yel- 
low. For more elaborate decorations, little things can 
be bought at confectioners or grocers. 


Take a cupful of powdered sugar and add sweet 
milk, a teaspoonful at a time, stirring the sugar and 
adding the milk till it is about right to spread on the 
cake. It breaks when it is ready. Flavoring, chopped 
raisins, nuts, a little melted chocolate slowly added, 
sliced bananas or any desired fruit or flavoring may 
be added. It is very nice without any flavoring. 


One and one-half cups lightest brown sugar, ^ cup 
white sugar, 1 cup sweet cream, butter size of walnut, 
vanilla, chopped nuts or raisins. Boil till it forms a soft 
ball when dropped in cold water. Beat. 


One pound figs, chopped, one cup sugar, one cup 
water. Boil slowly a few minutes. 



Bake a little one egg cake in a shallow loaf tin or 
deep layer cake tin and spread over the batter sliced 
apples, sugar and cinnamon. Use as cake or dessert 
with some simple sauce. It is simply an inverted 
bird's nest — Children's delight. 



One cup of flour, 4 ounces (sifted) equals Yz pint. 

Four cups of flour, 1 pound (sifted) equals 1 quart. 

Two cups of powdered sugar equals 1 pound (granu- 
lated also). 

Three cups (breakfast) of sugar, 1 pound granulated, 
equals 1 pint. 

One cup brown sugar, 6^ ounces. 

Two cups brown sugar, 13 ounces, equals 1 pint. 

One cup suet, 2 ounces, (very light), (shredded). 

One solid pint chopped meat, 1 pound. 

One cup chopped meat, ^ pound. 

One cup butter, Yz pound (packed). 

Four teaspoons equal 1 tablespoon (liquid). 

Eight teaspoons or 2 tablespoons equal 1 ounce. 

Sixteen ounces, 32 tablespoons, equal 1 pound, equals 
1 pint of liquid; (not true of all liquids) ; a half pint 
bottle is 8 ounces. 

One-half cup equals 8 tablespoons, equals 2 wine 
glasses, equals 1 gill. 

Four tablespoons equal 1 wine glass, equals ^ gill. 

Two cups or 4 gills equal 1 pint. 

Two pints equal 1 quart. 

Four quarts equal 1 gallon. 

Three cups (IJ^ pints) cornmeal, equal 1 pound. 

One-fourth cup of rice, raw, makes 1 cup cooked. 

One tablespoonful of salt equals 1 ounce. 

One tablespoonful of butter, well rounded, equals 1 


One tablespoonful of corn starch equals 2 of flour for 

One notched square of Baker's chocolate is 1 ounce or 

about 2 rounding tablespoons when grated or 

Ten ordinary sized eggs equal 1 pound. 
An ordinary tumber equals 1 coffee cup, equals ^2 pint. 
About 25 drops equals 1 teaspoonful (not true of all 




They are very good for both breakfast and supper. 

The cooked cereals have better flavor if allowed to 
boil on stove in inside boiler first for ten minutes, then 
set into outside boiler and cook slowly, using cozies. 
They should all be steamed at least one hour, though 
longer does no harm ; four hours makes oatmeal good, 
eight hours better and twelve hours best. Use fire- 
less cooker all night. 

Any of the boiled cereals are nice made thickened 
and fried next morning. Eat with syrup. If any is 
left over, it can also be fried. Steam one or two hours 
before pouring to set for frying. Grape nuts put in 
the oven and warmed, will make them more digestible. 
They can also be served by first putting a little hot 
water on them, then cream. The ready to eat cereals 
should always be carefully closed after using from 
the package, or they will lose their crispness. 

The only two cereals which have gluten are wheat 
and rye. The ready to eat crisp foods are nice with 
sliced bananas or other fruit. They are not so nour- 
ishing as the home cooked cereals. 


These four recipes are meant for a five pint boiler. 
Fill within 15^ inches of top of boiler, with boiling 
water, add 1}^ teaspoonfuls salt. Stir in 1^ coffee 
cups of cream of wheat, slowly. Stir till thick, cover 
up snugly with cozy and let steam twenty to thirty 
minutes. Better flavored if boiled in inside boiler 
on stove for ten minutes first. Very wholesome. 
Must be thicker for frying. 



Same rule, only use almost two cups of the meal. 


Same rule, except 2 teaspoonfuls salt, 1^ cups meal 
and if for frying, stir in a teaspoonful or so of sugar 
to make it brown quicker. If more than 1^ cups are 
used, it will boil over on stove. Better if steamed one 
hour or more. This corn meal recipe is meant for 
fried mush cooked in a quart double boiler, or a thin 
porridge in the 5 pint boiler. 

Oat meal requires 2 teaspoonfuls salt and 3 large 
coffee cups of Saxon Oats. Different oat meals re- 
quire a different amount. 

Any of these makes a nice, wholesome dish for sup- 
per, occasionally as does any porridge. Hominy is 
often used in place of cereals or boiled rice. Boil same 
as rice, only steam much longer. 



The three beverages most commonly used are tea, 
coffee and cocoa. In composition tea and coffee are 
nearly alike, theine being the active principle of tea and 
caffeine of coffee. 

The Bromine is the acting principle of chocolate. 
Chocolate is made by grinding the seeds of the cocoa 
palm and mixing with starch and sugar, the most nourish- 
ing of all drinks containing from 45 to 50 per cent of the 
lats and about IG per cent of the proteids. It is not only 
valuable as a drink but for many tempting dishes. Ex- 
cellent for nervous, thin children, though they should not 
be allowed enough to injure digestion. One of the little 
notched squares in Baker's chocolate is one ounce. Good 
rules for making cocoa or chocolate are found on all 
packages. Some like it less strong than the rules given. 
Very good sweetened with brown sugar; flavor with 
vanilla when about to remove from the stove, very good 
used as a flavor for hot milk and egg-nog. Chocolate is 
sometimes adulterated with starch and sugar. Un- 
ground coffee is not adulterated very much, while the 
ground coffee is often not coffee at all, being a mixture 
of acorns, peas, corn, etc. 

Tea is green or black according to the method of dry- 
ing or curing, green being dried quickly while the black 
is thrown in a heap to ferment before finishing. 


Tannin (not so much 

as in tea) 
Volatile oil in roasted 


' TheLne, 

Volatile Oil, Coffee ■{ 

Very little starch 
or albumen. 

coffee produced by 

Tea is adulterated with poor varieties ; green tea is 
tinted sometimes, with indigo and gypsum, to color black 


tea graphite is often used; leaves of willow and other 
trees and shrubs arejilso used for adulteration. A good 
cup of coffee costs about twice as much as a cup of 
good tea. Both tea and coffee produce sleeplessness 
in invalids, children and nervous people, owing to the 
volatile oil acting as a stimulant. 


Use a china, earthenware or silver teapot or better 
still, use two which have been heated by filling with boil- 
ing water before the tea is made. 

For an ordinary quart teapot, place 1 to 2 heaping 
teaspoonfuls of tea in the hot teapot and pour the boiling 
water on the minute it boils, then let stand from three to 
five minutes on back of stove. (Never allow it to boil). 
Pour or strain immediately into the other hot teapot or 

If ice tea is wanted, pour immediately on to the sugar, 
allowing about 1^ teaspoonfuls of sugar for each per- 
son — cover and when cold, set in the ice box or cellar. 
Iced tea or often times hot tea, is nice served with a slice 
of lemon. 

The use of milk in tea should be avoided as it precip- 
itates the tannin and forms a compound difficult of di- 
gestion. This same element of milk is found in other 
foods so that consequently if tea is taken at all, it should 
be taken alone or with jusj: a light wafer, between meals. 
This is true of coffee, but not so marked. Very careful 
attention should be paid to the making of tea — never let 
the grounds stand in it more than five minutes as it draws 
out too much of the tannin. 


Coffee does not give up its tannin so easily as tea and 
hence can stand boiling. 

The old rule for making coffee is a tablespoonful for 


each cup and one for the pot, and boil fifteen minutes. 
This makes a very, very strong coffee. In the army it 
is put in a cheese cloth sack put over with cold water, 
brought to a boil, and let boil five minutes. Half the 
amount is very good with the same method without the 
sack, and the cheapest method. 

Most common way, but rather expensive 

Take the same amount, (one tablespoonful to cup, etc), 
or half if desired, mix with a little egg and cold water. 
Pour a little boiling water on and let boil moderately 
for fifteen minutes, put on the rest of boiling water, let 
stand to settle about three minutes and serve. 

The French drip method, though the best flavored, 
is too expensive for every day use. The coffeepots with 
the inside part perforated, make an excellent coffee. The 
grounds can be removed the minute the coffee is made 
which should always be done if to stand any length of 

Pretty cozies can be quilted or padded to keep tea and 
coffee warm on the table. 


Put a little over a tablespoonful of coffee in a warm 
bowl, pour boiling water on, cover with saucer and let 
stand two to five minutes, strain into warm cup and drink 
clear, if they can, or disguise a raw egg beaten and let 
them sip it in a rather dark room. Do not boil. 


These are intended for the sick, also for between meal 
lunches for well people who have to work extra hard and 
need to keep up their strength. 

Solid food should not be eaten between meals, but 
nourishing drinks may be taken. 


The one thing about these lunches is they should be 
taken at the same hour every day, not later than ten in 
the morning for those having dinner at twelve, nor eleven 
for those having dinner at one, nor later than four or 
five in the afternoon, according to time of evening meal. 
Though wine and liquors are given as flavorings, they 
are not recommended ; the recipes may be used as founda- 
tions using other flavors or none at all. One learns to 
like the plain. 


One-half cup milk, white 1 egg, put both in a shaker, 
shake well and serve at once. If lemon juice is added, 
use it slowly or it will curdle. 


White of 1 egg, 1 cup cold water, 2 teaspoonfuls lemon 
juice, 1 or 2 teaspoonfuls of sugar, (better for system 
without sugar). Break the egg a little and put all the in- 
gredients into a covered jar and shake till blended 
thoroughly. If it is cooled on ice it must be shaken 
again as ingredients separate. Use good, pure water. - 


One quart milk, 1 yeast cake, 1^^ tablespoonfuls sugar, 
1 tablespoonful luke warm water to dissolve yeast cake. 

Heat the milk until luke warm, add sugar and yeast 
cake. Fill beer bottles one and one-half inches from the 
top, cork and invert. Tie corks firmly. Let stand for 
six hours inverted in a temperature of 80 degrees. Chill 
and serve the following day. 


One cup hot milk, 1 small lemon. Heat milk in 
double boiler, add lemon juice, cook until curd sep- 
arates. If strained by pressing whey from curd, a 


larger amount passes through. When strained, add 1 
teaspoonful sugar. Serve hot or cold. 


Should not be used only under orders of conscientious 
doctor and then only as few times as possible. 

One cup boiling milk, Yz cup sherry wine, 2 teaspoon- 
fuls sugar. Pour the wine into hot milk and allow to 
stand about three minutes or until the curd separates. 
Strain and sweeten to taste. Serve hot or cold. 


One ^^^, salt (one pinch) 1 teaspoonful sugar, 2 cups 
of hot milk. Beat the eggs, add the salt and sugar, pour 
the hot milk slowly over it. Serve immediately. One 
cup of milk may be used. It is well to put a tablespoonful 
of cold cream in the milk before pouring over tg'g. 


(Junket tablets may be used instead. Ten cents a box 

at druggists.) 

One quart milk slightly warmed (about 100 degrees 
or less) and sweetened, 1 tablespoonful rennet. Stir just 
enough to mix thoroughly. Serve with cream, sugar, 
jellies or preserved ginger. Makes a nice dessert for 
dinner. Served as whole in mold or set in custard cups. 
If milk is too warm or stirred too much, it will curdle. 


One ^g, pinch salt, sugar, ^ cup milk, brandy or wine. 
Beat the ^%g, add the milk, sweeten to taste and add 1 
tablespoonful of brandy. One cup of milk may be used 
or 1^2 cups. Brandy should only be used if a stimulant 
is needed. Cinnamon, nutmeg, or other flavorings are 


better for everyday use. Strain for fear of serving the 
stringy part of the Qgg. 


Yolk of 1 egg, 1 cup hot milk, 2 teaspoonfuls sugar, 
pinch salt. Beat the yolk of the egg, add the sugar, pour 
the hot milk over them and flavor as desired. If wine or 
brandy is ordered, use 1 tablespoonful. The whole egg 
can be used or the white may be browned on the top in 
the oven to tempt and surprise the invalid. 


White of 1 egg, tableapoonful brandy, tablespoonful 
cream, 2 teaspoonfuls sugar. Beat the egg but not to a 
stiff froth. Add the cream and beat them together, then 
add the brandy and sugar. Sugar syrup may be used to 
sweeten it. 


Boil milk and beat yellow of egg, pour over it the hot 
milk. Return to stove in double boiler, when thick and 
cool, add sherry wine and white of egg. Add sugar, 
while hot and use other flavorings if desired. Wine 
should be warmed a little. 


Mix sugar with lemonade and pour over the above egg 
nog, then add the white well beaten and shake in a shaker. 
Leave out milk. 


Make like any egg nog, using }4 cup of hot water in- 
stead of milk. 


Four even teaspoonfuls cocoa, J4 cup boiled water, a 
little cold water, 1 cup scalded milk. Mix cocoa with a 


little cold water, add to boiling water, boil one minute, 
then add scalded milk and beat one minute, beat with 
Dover egg beater. The froth formed prevents scum 
which is so unsightly. One may use less cocoa and in- 
stead of blending with cold water mix very little flour 
and a teaspoonful of sugar with the cocoa. Add a sug- 
gestion of salt. Sweeten and cream same as tea or coffee. 
Cocoa may be used instead of chocolate for pies, pud- 
dings, etc. in the same manner as a simple pudding sauce. 


1 quart boiling water, 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls salt, 4 table- 
spoonfuls rolled oats. Put all ingredients in upper part 
of double boiler, cook over fire for one hour or more, 
strain, add milk and serv^e. It may be cooked in ten min- 
utes or two hours, the longer the better the flavor. A 
tiny bit of butter, sugar and cream adds to flavor. 


Two tablespoonfuls rolled oats, cold water, % tea- 
spoonful salt, 1 pint hot milk. Mix oatmeal and salt, add 
enough cold water to moisten. Add hot milk and cook 
in double boiler for one hour or more. Strain. 


Two-thirds cup coarse meal, 1 teaspoonful salt, 1 pint 
cold water, milk, cream. Pound out meal till mealy, add 
y^ of the cold water, stir well, let settle. Repeat twice 
using remaining water. Boil the meal water ten minutes, 
season with salt, dilute with milk and cream, strain and 
serve. Delicate, more expensive than others and less 


Two tablespoonfuls Indian meal, 1 tablespoonful flour, 
14 teaspoonful salt, cold water, 3 cups boiling water, 


milk or cream. Mix meal, flour and salt, add cold 
water to make thin paste, add to boiling water and boil 
gently one hour, dilute with milk or cream. A richer 
gruel can be made by using milk instead of water. Cook 
three hours in double boiler. 


Eight tablespoonfuls powdered crackers, ^ tea- 
spoonful salt, 1 cup boiling water, 1 cup milk. Mix salt 
with crackers, add these to milk and water, and cook 
for a few minutes^ strain and serve with milk and salt 
if needed. 


One cup boiling water, cold water, 3 teaspoonfuls bar- 
ley flour, 1 cup milk, %. teaspoonful salt. Mix barley 
flour with cold water to make paste, add to boiling water 
and boil fifteen minutes, then add milk and season. Re- 
heat and strain. 


One ounce (3 tablespoonfuls) ground rice, 3 of milk 
or water, speck salt. Mix like simple oatmeal gruel, cook 
fifteen minutes or more. Sugar, wine or brandy may be 
used if prescribed. Use in bowel complaints. 


One cup boiling water, 2 teaspoonfuls Bermuda arrow 
root, cold water, salt. Mix. arrow root with cold water 
to form thin paste, add boiling water, cook ten minutes, 
season; use cream if desired. Arrow root is the purest 
form of starch. 


Two cups boiling water, 1 cup milk, 1 tablespoonful 
farina, 1 ^gg, cold water, ^ teaspoonful salt. Mix farina 


with enough cold water to form a thin paste, add boiling 
water, boil thirty minutes, then add milk and reheat. Beat 
egg and add to gruel, season and serve. 


Most drinks should be strained for the sick. A little 
piece of ice adds much to the flavor of all fruit drinks. 


Use about ^ of a lemon and 2 teaspoonfuls of sugar 
to a glass of water. The peeled lemon and sugar are 
pressed together with wood potato masher and water 
added. With the lemon squeezer it takes about J^ a 
lemon to a glass ; lemons differ in amount of juice. 
The water should be measured with a glass. 


Canned fruit juice diluted and flavored with orange 
juice or sliced orange, lemon or pineapple and ice added 
are very refreshing. 


Made like lemonade only more juice and less sugar, 
nice flavored with lemon. In strawberry season, crush 
strawberries, strain and sweeten. Flavor and dilute if 
necessary. Persons suffering from hay-fever should 
avoid strawberries. For the other nourishing liquids 
or semi-liquids, see soups and desserts. 


Set skimmed milk in tumblers or a glass dish in a 
very clean place to thicken, then sprinkle with cinnamon 
and a little sugar. It is nice for a change (ice-cold). 
Eat with a spoon. 



For people who live in the country, it is cheaper to can 
your own fruit and vegetables. In the city it is well to 
have some cans on hand as often you can buy fruit and 
vegetables very reasonable from the peddlers, and oft- 
entimes nice and fresh. By putting up a basketful now 
and then, you don't realize how soon you have a nice 
supply in the basement which must be very cold. Where 
there is a furnace, there should be a little room remote 
from it, for cold storage. Most things keep well in a 
cool, dark cupboard or pantry. 

For people who have little time, it is good that those 
things can be bought, but the home canning is the best. 
However, it is not wise to put all the money you have 
for fruit into canning, let half or a reasonable amount 
be used for the fresh fruit while it is in season, and let 
the family have the benefit of it while it is in season. 
Some people do too much canning and deprive them- 
selves of the fresh fruit, while others don't do enough. 
Even under the pure food laws the home canning is 
the best. 

Refrain from the use of acids and preservatives. The 
stomach and other organs are a far greater loss than a 
spoiled can of fruit occasionally. However, neither fruit 
nor vegetables will spoil if you are particular about your 
cans and place of keeping. The cans should be washed 
and rinsed with very hot water, that is, sterilize them, 
cans, covers and rubbers. It is well to partly prepare 
them the day before. Put on cover and rubber, having 
a little hot water in the can and turn upside down to 
see if can is safe. Sometimes there is a flaw in either 


the cover or the can; if it is the cover, try another one, 
and if the can has a flaw in it, seal with a little roll of; 
putty when the can is full and nearly cold ; the putty^ 
must be well pounded or molded in the hand, pressed, 
on firmly and pressed again after can is cold. It can be' 
removed by tapping a small sewing machine screw^ 
driver with a tack hammer without injuring the can or 
cover. It is almost impossible to buy a dozen jars with- 
out a flaw and it is very easy to crack them at the top 
when tightening. Tighten very slowly, especially the 
two quart cans. Only those with flaws need to be sealed 
with sealing material. Paraffin is excellent and when 
melted can be put on with a little brush made of tooth- 
pick and cotton ; it can be saved when can is opened and 
used again next year. Some use a bar of common 
laundry soap for sealing. Screv/ down tops immediately 
after filling, though it does no harm to let fruit shrink 
a few minutes and fill with boiling water or syrup. 
When opening a can sealed with paraffin, stick in warm 
water or set in ovenjust a minute. If using a steel 
range the cans can be heated on back of range, if gas, 
put the cans in pan of hot water. If stoneware is bought 
for canning purposes be sure that it is well glazed or 
poisonous goods may be the result. (Lead is used in 
some glazing, beware of it.) For things requiring long 
cooking, use fireless cooker over night and simply reheat 
in the morning before canning. 

In putting up small quantities at a time, a teaspoon 
makes a better measure than a cup, that is if one has 
material enough for, say two bottles of catsup. Twenty 
teaspoonfuls of sugar heaping, makes a common break- 
fast cup and eight teaspoonfuls of salt make a half cup. 
One of the common baskets used for grapes, peaches, 
etc., is equal to about half a peck, when heaping full. 
A small milk pitcher is good for filling the cans or a 
wide mouthed funnel can be made of paraffin or writing 


paper. Rusty dippers and cooking utensils should be 
avoided. Silver and porcelain are best. Keeping de- 
pends on sterilization and sealing. Everything should 
be sterilized, even the hands should be rinsed ofter in 
sterile water while canning. Sterilizing may be done 
by either baking or boiling, rubbers should be scalded 
in a separate utensil. 

Both fruits and vegetables should be selected care- 
fully, being fresh as possible and not too ripe ; blemishes 
and bad spots should be removed. Also select the best 
granulated sugar, as the cheap is adulterated to a great 
extent with glucose and other things. All tough fruits 
and vegetables may be parboiled three to five minutes 
in baking soda water. 

It is very convenient when peeling, to keep a wet 
sterile, cloth near, as the knife discolors so and should be 
wiped very often, or use a thin, sharp silver fruit knife. 

Both the best flavored and best keeping things are 
put up without peeling, which is economical and also a 
very good method when pressed for time. The down on 
peaches can be removed with a coarse towel or a rather 
stiff brush. Pineapples are easier peeled if first cut in 
circles and then peel the circles. 

The cans should be filled where it is warm and ex- 
cluded from draft and the cold air, and when taken from 
the stove should be set on something warm ; if desired, 
they can stand a few minutes for fruit to shrink, then 
fill to overflowing, with the hot syrup or boiling water 
from the teakettle, then seal and invert. The covers 
should be heated as heat expands, and some give the 
cover an extra twist after can is cold. I never disturb 
the cover after can is cold, for after the can is inverted 
the syrup settles in between the cover and can and makes 
a fairly good seal. Give an extra twist just before cold. 

On opening, if any mold appears, remove very carefully 
or flavor of mold will go through the fruit, also carry 


from the cellar very carefully. The same method of 
canning one kind of friut or vegetable, applies to almost 
all kinds with a few exceptions, as corn. Corn is easier 
to can if mixed with tomatoes. 

To open a can, stick a needle under the rubber, in two 
or three places and let the air in. Do not dent the cover 
or you may lose a can of fruit next year. 

It is not necessary to throw away all the old rubbers, 
only those that are imperfect. Small fruits should never 
stand over night, if they have to, can early the next 

The place where canned goods is kept, should be very 
dark as the light injures the color of the fruit and in 
tomatoes causes the formation of citric acid. It should 
also be dry. Cans should be examined three or four 
days after filling, and if a can is found leaking at rim, 
this leak should be brushed well with melted paraffin. 
If a can has no cover or broken at the top pour a few 
spoons of melted paraffin on top after fruit is cold or 
nearly so. Melted paraffin well brushed on edge of cover 
will keep fruit without rubbers. Stone jars are nice for 
strawberries if those with the covers that set in, can be 
bought; they are easy to seal and keep the flavor and 
color of the fruit better. A tiny spider. or kettle with a 
little nozzle or dent on the side for pouring is excellent 
for melting sealing wax or paraffin. 

On opening tin cans or those which have been bought, 
pour all the fruit or vegetable out into any kind of a dish 
that will not tarnish. Never let it stand in the open can. 
as this has caused very severe cases of poisoning. 

If it is necessary to put a circle of paraffin on a large 
jar, brush again with paraffin around the edge after the 
rircle has cooled and shrunk. 

Glass cans and covers will last for years if carefully 

.ished and thoroughly dried after using the fruit. Put 

v^,r back on can loosely after drying in oven. 


If syrup is left after canning fruit, it may be flavored 
with vinegar or lemon, boiled for a minute and bottled 
to use with ice water for refreshing drinks in the sum- 
mer time. Peach skins make good syrup for table use ; 
make in the same way as jelly. 

Nothing will be said about preserves as they are so 
very expensive and require so much time and prepara- 
tion, besides being indigestible. 


Put in a large porcelain pan or kettle, about two quarts 
of water and sugar, in the proportion of one cup to two 
cups to one quart of fruit, when finished, according to 
the tartness of the fruit (peaches require only a cup to 
a quart, while strawberries require two). Boil till a nice 
syrup, then put in fruit enough, say for four quarts and 
heat through, thoroughly pushing around very delicately 
with a porcelain, wooden or silver spoon so as not to 
break or discolor the fruit. When heated through, drop 
delicately into the cans (which have been well prepared, 
tested and heated), with pitcher, cup or spoon; fill to 
overflowing, screw slowly and carefully for fear of break- 
ing and invert in a rather warm place Avoid sudden 
changes of temperature or cans may crack. If a can 
should happen to leak or crack near the cover, seal with 
putty or parafiin. The same syrup may be used twice, 
that is for the next two or four cans, if strong enough 
or even more times. Let boil two or three minutes be- 
fore putting in fruit the second time; add sugar if nec- 
essary. It is well to have a little extra syrup in a sauce 
pan for fear of running, short. One can even up the 
cans better and be able to get out, say eight good quarts 
when you might only have seven and a half. If not 
needed it can be used on the table. 

One-half cup of sugar to one quart is sufficient for 
mild fruits. 


Strawberries are the most apt to spoil, hence have 
plenty of hot syrup on hand to fill the cans well. If any 
juice is left it can be mixed with last year's currant juice 
and jelled. 

Cherries are hard to put up if one has not a cherry 
pitter. Save juice and seeds when pitting, cover with 
cold water ; boil one-half hour and strain ; use this juice 
for the canning, or if making pie, pour the juice thus 
made over the pitted cherries. 

For fruits or vegetables that require long cooking, 
boil fifteen or twenty minutes and put in the fireless 
cooker over night ; in the morning boil again for a few 
minutes and can or bottle. 

Nearly all fruits may be packed into jars raw, peeled 
or unpeeled, covered with hot syrup sweetened to tasie 
and boiled in the jars for half an hour or little better 
after the method of the canned corn. They may also be 
steamed or baked in the jars. Even baked squash may 
be scraped out of the shell and put up in this way. 


The large plums are canned as above, except prick 
with a fork to prevent bursting, but the little damson 
and the wild plum should be boiled about three minutes 
in water with a little baking soda and then lifted with a 
wire spoon or long-handled skimmer into the syrup 
and proceed as above, only cook about fifteen or twenty 


Those requiring five to eight minutes are, cherries, 
raspberries, blackberries, ripe currants, gooseberries, 
strawberries, peaches quartered or halved, whortleberries 
(blue or huckleberry), large plums, rhubarb (vegetable), 
and sour apples quartered, ten minutes. Those requiring 
twenty-five to thirty minutes are, small sour pears, whole, 
and Siberian crab apples. 


Apples may be mixed sour and sweet. For pickling 
purposes, Talmon sweet apples are the best. 

Siberian crabs are very nice canned whole or quartered 
and unpeeled, or cut out the best pieces of those used for 
jelly and put up with a syrup made of half vinegar and 
water. Excellent steamed. 

Ripe currants are improved greatly by taking off the 
little dark ends as well as the stems, but it hardly pays 
for the time required to do it. They are also very nice 
left right on the stem and a few spices added, but must 
be handled very gently. For making jelly, stems may 
be left on, simmering the clusters just as they are. Green 
currants are nice spiced or are very nice canned for 

Canned plums are nice in winter time put in a deep 
pie plate lined with biscuit dough and turned over to- 
wards the center, leaving a slight opening and baked in 
rather hot oven. 


Separate skin from pulp after washing well ; put skins 
in the preserving pan or- kettle which contains a little hot 
water or syrup to start them and put the pulps in another 
kettle and boil about five minutes, then strain on to the 
skins and rub well through the gravy strainer. This re- 
moves all the seeds very quickly and easily. Add sugar 
(say if going to have five quarts of fruit finished) about 
nine or ten cups. Boil all together slowly twenty or 
thirty minutes and can. Excellent mixed with elder- 
berry, using less sugar. Cook the elderberry with the 
pulp and strain. 


Very rich and keep well as jelly. For a ten pound 
basket of grapes, use 10 pounds of sugar, 1 cup of vin- 
egar, 2 teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, 2 teaspoonfuls 


(scant) of cloves, 1 teaspoonful allspice, Yz teaspoon- 
ful of ginger. 

Separate pulp from skin as above and boil pulp about 
five minutes, then rub through a gravy strainer or flour 
sieve. Mix all together and boil slowly till it jells (about 
twenty minutes or better). Put up in glasses as you 
would jelly. The ground spices are meant. Gooseber- 
ries, crabs, black currants, etc., may be spiced nearly 
the same, leaving out the vinegar or using very little. 


Canned tomatoes are the most valuable for they can be 
used for so many purposes, as gravies, soups, etc. 

Select tomatoes just ripe or nearly ripe, but not over- 
ripe. Pour scalding water over them and let stand about 
a half minute, covered, then drain ofif water and put on 
a dipper or two of cold water to cool them, then skin, 
cutting oii* blemishes and digging out the little green 
part where stems join. Put in preserving- utensil with 
good round teaspoonful of salt to each quart, or for four 
one quart cans, three teaspoonfuls is a good proportion. 
Break a few of the tomatoes for juice to start the boil- 
ing. Boil moderately till tomatoes are well heated and 
quite soft, stir lightly two or three times, not breaking 
the tomatoes more than can be helped, then with a wire 
spoon or silver fork, lift all that can be lifted into the 
heated jars which should be nearly three-quarters full. 
Now take the remaining juice and press through a gravy 
strainer or flour sieve, into a kettle with a nozzle, keep- 
ing both kettles on stove while doing this, then stir and 
pour into the cans, filling to overflowing. This method 
removes about half or more of the seeds. Then follow 
directions at the beginning of this chapter, for the care 
of cans. If pressed for time, start with a little salted 
boiling water, and after wiping carefully, cook skins and 
all, breaking the large ones so as to get them in the can. 


When the time comes to use them, the skins can easily 
be picked out with a toothpick or silver fork. No harm 
is done if a few do stay in. Many recipes will be found 
throughout the book for the use of canned tomatoes. If 
any juice is left, season and boil down for catsup. 


(The corn recipe may also be used for these, filling 
the cans with cold sterile water after packing.) 

Simmer for about a half hour if beans are very tender 
or two hours if tough, in slightly salted water and follow 
rules for care of cans. The tough strings should be re- 
moved. Parboiling for about five minutes in baking 
soda water before putting in the salted water, removes 
the beany taste. 

Soaked all night in salt water, then cooked in another 
water till tender, then lift into the fruit cans and cover 
with a hot syrup of half water and vinegar, a little sugar 
and mixed whole spice. Let stand 24 hours. Drain and 
reheat syrup or use fresh. 


Either for canning or cooking use as quickly after 
picking as possible, as it loses its sweetness. 

It is most difficult to can and yet easy after a little 
practice. It is cheaper to buy the best grade by the 
dozen if one has to buy it. Sterilize jars, covers and 
rubbers (rubbers must be new). Cut corn from cob raw 
and pack into jars as tight as it can be packed, using a 
pounder of some sort, then put on rubbers and covers 
and tighten well. 

Put three or four thicknesses of old white cloth in the 
bottom of the wash boiler or very large kettle, cover cans 
well with cold water after placing in boiler (pack any 
way) and boil steady for four^ hours. (Fuel may be 
saved by covering the boiler with cozies or old towels and 
lower gas.) Then lift and tighten again. Let get cold 


and wrap each can well with newspapers ; pack tightly in 
box and put in cellar. It is not so white as the bought 
canned corn, but is delicious. Merely heat and season 
with a little milk when ready to eat. Be sure to turn the 
filled cans of corn upside down and rub edge of cover 
where it fastens with soap (softened by heat) or putty, 
nr use paraffin (if paraffin, put on while hot and again 
when cold), as it must be absolutely air tight. It takes 
about 15 to 18 ears to fill a one quart can. This is a 
safe method for nearly all vegetables. 


Cut the cabbage fine, with potato or cabbage cutter, 
leaving out the stump, using a stone crock, highly glazed 
to pack it in. First put in a layer of common, coarse 
salt over the bottom of the jar, about one-quarter of an 
inch deep, then a layer of cabbage five or six inches deep, 
then a couple of tablespoonfuls of salt, packing each 
layer firmly with a potato masher (wooden), each 
time. Repeat the process until wathin six inches of the 
top, then adding the two tablespoons of salt at the last, 
covering the whole wnth t\vo or three layers of large 
cabbage leaves, using a white cloth doubled' two or 
three times over the cabbage leaves, and weighing the 
whole down with a heavy plate and a good sized clean 
rock. Keep skimmed carefully. 

Care should be taken not to use too much salt, as this 
prevents fermentation. Likewise, every time kraut is 
taken out the cloth must be rinsed and plate and stone 
thoroughly washed in clear water. This takes the place 
of skimming. Very good cooked with spare ribs, beef, 
bacon, frankforts, a little salt pork or by itself, flavored 
with butter or dripping. Very nice raw. Do not wash. 


Take good, sweet cider, or wait till it just begins to 
ferment. Put on the stove, skim thoroughly while heat- 


ing to remove all pumice, heat to boiling point, but it 
must not boil. Pour in bottles or jugs and seal while 
hot. Two or three raisins in each bottle or jug flavor it 
nicely. Good for colds. 

Raw cider may be bottled after racking once a week 
for four weeks ; seal well and lay bottles on their sides 
in sawdust. Never use preservatives. Avoid them as 
you would patent medicines and soothing syrups. 


'Cut fine and sprinkle with salt; let stand for forty- 
eight hours. Drain and pour over it hot vinegar, flav- 
ored with black or white pepper ; some add a little ginger. 
Seal if put up to keep. 

Red cabbage is nice ci^t up fine and stewed two hours 
very slowly in a little vinegar and dripping. Season and 


Boil citron which has been peeled and cut in dice or 
small pieces in water with a little salt, for about one-half 
hour, then drain and put into syrup as other fruit, and 
boil till tender or rather transparent. Flavor strongly 
with sliced lemon or to taste. 


Can the same as citron, excepting ginger root flavors 
it better than lemon and very little of it. The rind of 
ripe melons only is used, removing all green parts and 
cutting in pieces two or three inches long. Boil only 
about five minutes in a very weak solution of salt 
water, then proceed as with citron, or steam and cover 
with hot syrup. 


This is simply made by boiling down sweet cider and 
apples. Children like it on bread. It is a nice sauce for 
supper and often serves as fruit for breakfast. It can be 


kept in stone jars. Cheap and saves butter, though not 
a good substitute for butter unless used with meat, as the 
system must have its proper amount of fat. 


All jellies are made by the same method or rather can 
be made the same way. It is easier to make jelly in clear 
weather than on a dark and cloudy day ; it thickens bet- 
ter, often it will not jell till the next day. A little vin- 
egar added will help to thicken. The fruit should not 
be so very ripe and the skins are the necessary part. 
Peach skins can be mixed with apple skins and make a 
very good jelly. 


Large fruits may be quartered; currants and grapes 
may be boiled, stems and all ; Siberian crabs are excel- 
lent for jell and should be cooked to a mush. Wash the 
fruit very clean and have preserve pan very clean ; white 
porcelain is preferred. Put enough water on fruit to 
keep from burning. Boil till quite juicy. Put into a 
very clean cheese cloth bag and place so it will drain, 
where there is no dust. If jell is wanted very clear, 
do not press bag, but remove the juice and use an- 
other receptacle, then press bag to make a second 
quality of jell which is not so clear if desired. This 
bag may be left to drain all night. Put juice on stove 
and let boil ten minutes, then add sugar and boil ten 
minutes more. Put in glasses. All bad in the fruit 
should be removed. One pound of sugar to a pint of 
juice is a nice proportion which is about pint for pint,, 
which is better measured. Some fruits if juice is 
boiled down a little, do not require quite this much 
sugar. It is always best to test the jelly by dropping 
a little on a very cold saucer. Too long boiling makes 
jelly tough and leathery. A few of tRe peach stones 


added to peach jelly flavor it nicely. A jelly rest for 
draining the bag may be made with four pieces of 
wood to stand up straight, and then four to cross the 
top, nailed to the others. The bag can be fastened to 
the four at the top so that fruit can be poured in with 
little trouble. Three strips of each will do instead 
of four. 

The covers of jelly glasses may be lined with par- 
affin paper. 


There is something about the flavor of this jell that 
makes it a favorite with everyone. The crabs can be 
put in the cellar and jell made as it is needed in the 
winter. It is made like other jelly excepting that the 
crabs are nasty, gummy things and can be washed 
with warm suds and then parboiled a few minutes in 
baking soda water to thoroughly clean and remove 
some of the awful bitterness from the skins. Then 
put on in clean water to boil and proceed as with other 

A few of these wild crabs mixed with Siberian 
crabs, make a very nice jell. 


Jams are usually made from blackberries, currants, 
raspberries and strawberries, while marmalades are 
made from the more firm fruit, as pineapples, peaches, 
apricots, etc. Both require almost constant stirring. 

For jam some wash the fruit first and add about 1 
large coffee cup of sugar to 1 pint of mashed fruit. 
Boil the fruit about twenty minutes before adding 
sugar, then boil till it stays together on a cold plate 
without any juice gathering around it. It should 
look dry. 


Small stone jars are nice for it and sealed 
and secured as any fruit. Writing paper dipped in 
white of egg is an old fashioned way of sealing and 
one that is very good. The white of egg acts as a 
glue and if put on twice on each jar, it is pretty safe. 
Some dip a piece in brandy and cover the top before 

Another way of making jam, and I think an easier 
one, is to cook the fruit a little and press through a 
colander or coarse sieve and then proceed as above. 
Gooseberries make nice jam, also Siberian crabs. 
There is very little difference between marmalade and 
jam. If making two kinds of jelly, one may mix what 
is left in the bags and rub through strainer and make 
it into a nice jam slightly spiced. 


Pare, stone and weigh the fruit. Boil the stones, 
not all, but about half, in enough water to cover well, 
strain. Quarter the peaches and add to the strained 
water. Boil slowly for three-quarters of an hour. Add 
three fourths pounds of sugar to each pound of fruit 
and boil five to ten minutes more. Skim and add 
juice of one-third of a lemon or less to each pound 
of fruit. Boil a little longer, when it should have the 
appearance of a smooth paste. Put in glass jars when 
nearly cold. Seal as other fruit. 


Cook the thin rind of about one-quarter of all the 
oranges, in two waters with a pinch of salt. Strain. 
Grate the rind of another quarter of them, being 
careful not to use the white in either case. Cut all 
the sections of the fruit up fine, letting the juice drain 
upon the sugar. If sugar is not melted, then add a 
very little water. Now add the cut or chopped fruit, 


the boiled skins or shreds and the grated rind. Boil 
all together twenty minutes or a little more. When 
nearly cold, put in glasses or small jars. Seal. 


Boil the skins in enough water to cover them. 
Strain. Boil pulps for five or ten minutes and press 
through wire sieve or gravy strainer. Mix the two 
juices; to five quarts of this add three quarts of sour' 
apples, cut fine, the juice of two lemons and about 
fifteen to seventeen cups of sugar. Add to this a little 
bag of unground spices and leave boil with it till 
spiced to taste. Boil one-half hour and put in glasses 
or small jars. Cover or seal with white of egg and 
paper or paraffin. 


Pare, core and cut fine. To each pound of fruit, 
take three-fourths of the amount of sugar. Boil 
slowly till reduced to a pulp. Put away same as other 


Boil one peck of ripe tomatoes in a porcelain kettle, 
until soft. Press them through a sieve- or gravy 
strainer, then add two and a half cups vinegar, one 
and a quarter cups sugar, one-half cup of salt, one- 
eighth teaspoonful of red pepper and one-eighth tea- 
spoonful of paprika. If desired, leave out the paprika 
and use one-fourth teaspoonful of red pepper. Boil 
slowly, stirring frequently till it is reduced to almost 
half. Bottle very firmly and keep in a very cold 
place. Beer bottles are nice for it and put a little cir- 
cle of paraffin paper under the stopper. A small 
pitcher is handy to pour the catsup in i£ no funnel is 
at hand. To make clear catsup, the tomatoes must 


be cleaned from all blemishes. I use a common 
breakfast coffee cup for measuring. Green tomatoes 
with a few apple skins boiled with them make an 
excellent catsup. 


Take a good half peach basket of ripe tomatoes, 
wipe with a damp cloth and pour boiling water over 
them. Remove the skins and blemishes and cut into 
rather small chunks into a four-quart porcelain kettle. 
The day before making, wipe and remove the blem- 
ishes and the real dark green part of the skins from 
eight to ten medium sized green tomatoes. Slice and 
put to soak over night in cold water with very little 
salt, about one teaspoonful to two quarts of water. 
Drain through colander and chop in chopping bowl, 
not very fine. Then add to the ripe tomatoes. Have 
ready four or five good sized onions which have been 
sliced, soaked in cold water and brought almost to a 
boil in another cold water and drained ; then chop, but 
not too fine ; they may be chopped with tomatoes if 
bowl is large enough. Now add 1 cup of vinegar, 1 cup 
of brown sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls of salt, 2 teaspoon- 
fuls of granulated sugar and the end of a teaspoon- 
ful (say one-eighth) each of red pepper, paprika 
and white pepper ; also one-quarter of a teaspoonful of 
cloves and one-half teaspoonful of allspice. This makes 
the kettle very full, which is a little inconvenient at 
first, but it soon boils down. Boil for a long time 
slowly and then put in jars. Pint glass fruit jars are 
very nice for it. 

The above quantity made two beer bottles full (very 
hard to fill, requiring a teaspoon and toothpick), one 
pint jar full and half another pint jar. The last is for 
immediate use but the others must be put away as any 
canned goods — air tight. 


This recipe can be changed to suit the taste and con- 
venience for the use of materials one happens to have 
on hand. It should be stirred frequently at first and 
more often towards the last, as the more it boils down 
the more liable it is to stick. Half ripe tomatoes make 
good chili sauce. Green tomatoes make excellent chili 
sauce also, using just a little more vinegar. Aluminum 
kettles are best but only few people have them. 


■ One-half gallon virjegar, five pounds of sugar, one- 
half cup stick cinnamon, one-half cup allspice, one-half 
cup cloves. Break spices with rolling pin and boil all 
together for about twenty minutes; then strain syrup 
before adding peaches. The peaches can be heated 
through in the syrup the same as for canning, or they 
may be steamed and the syrup boiled a little longer, 
then poured over them. Rub the peaches with a coarse 
towel or hand brush. Insert a clove or two in each 
one. This recipe for syrup can be used for other 


Stem grapes, wash well and boil till they are easily 
mashed, then rub through colander. Take the pulp 
that has been put through the colander and put in a 
clean cheese cloth bag. Press but very little, then to 
three cups of juice take one cup of sugar or a little less 
if grapes are not very sour. Boil about five or ten min- 
utes only or it will jell. Fill pint jars to overflowing 
and seal. When using it, dilute one-half or two-thirds 
with cold water. Very good and a very refreshing 
drink for an invalid or for a beverage in hot weather. 
The pulp in the cheese cloth bag can be made into jam. 
Black currants put up the same way are excellent for 



One peck green tomatoes chopped, four pounds 
granulated sugar, two teaspoonfuls each of cloves, all- 
spice, nutmeg, cinnamon, two pounds seeded raisins 
or currants, two cups vinegar, one lemon chopped fine, 
one-half peck of apples, if desired. Simmer two or 
three hours, stirring occasionally. Put in fruit cans 
and seal. Apples or any fruit may be added to the 
pies when making, and a little more sugar. This 
makes. about five or six quarts without the apples. It 
is well to cut the tomatoes in two and let stand all 
night in cold water slightly salted. One may add home 
made wine, if desired. Add a little vinegar to the water 
in which the tomatoes stand all night. 


Two pounds lean beef (simmer about two hours), 
one pound suet, one and one-half quarts or a little less 
of chopped apples, three cupfuls of seeded raisins, one 
cupful of currants, one-half pound of citron shaved 
very fine, one-half cupful of candied lemon and orange 
peel mixed and chopped fine, one-half cupful of mo- 
lasses, one and a half cups sugar, grated rind and juice 
of each one lemon and one orange, one-half teaspoon- 
ful each of cloves and all spice, one teaspoonful of cin- 
namon, two teaspoonfuls of salt, one-half cupful each 
of brandy and sherry, one cupful of cider (if not boiled 
use the hard), one pint bottle will do to buy the last 
three in, mixing together. 

Chop the beef and suet very fine and mix, taking 
out the stringy stuff which comes to the top while 
chopping. Add all the other ingredients, including the 
liquor the meat was cooked in, which will be only a 
cup or tv/o, and simmer, mixing gently while sim- 
mering. When well heated through, put in a well 
glazed jar or fruit cans. It should stand a week or 


two to blend before using. Two cups of hard cider 
may be used instead of the liquor. The liquor is 
meant to preserve the mince meat, not for flavoring. 
It will keep six or eight weeks without it and all win- 
ter with it. This much will make ten lar^e pies or 
fifteen small ones. When making a pie, a glass of 
canned fruit may be added or some apples may be 
sliced thin and put over the top before putting on 
upper crust. This is easily made if one has a good 
food chopper, otherwise it takes two hours. 


In dried fruits, the nourishment is not lost, only the 
water has been removed. Apples are simply peeled 
and sliced and put in the sun under a mosquito netting, 
then hung in bags and kept in a cool, dry place. Most 
of other fruits are partly or wholly cooked, some in 
syrup and some not^ then drained and dried. Figs 
are cooked in a syrup then dried, which is what we 
buy. Cherries and citron may be dried or candied the 
same as figs. Candied orange and lemon peel should 
be scraped out so as to remove most of the white, par- 
boiled about five minutes in weak salt water, then in 
a strong syrup till tender, drained and dried in the 
warming oven for two or three days ; these are nice 
for cake flavoring and other things. It hardly pays 
to dry them as quite a little can be bought for five or 
ten cents. The dried fruits for table use, no matter 
whether for sauce or pie, require long, slow cooking. 
To wash them, it is well to put them on the back of 
the stove in cold water for about half an hour to soften 
dirt on the outside, then thoroughly wash and simmer 
two or three hours, or soak all night after washing, 
and cook in the same water they were soaked in for 
about one hour. Sweeten and flavor. 



Dried pumpkin makes very nice pies. To can or 
dry, boil or rather simmer till almost dry and dry a 
little further in a slow oven as one would for pies, 
using a tiny bit of salt in cooking. Then can and what 
is left to be dried keep stirring occasionally in the 
oven until it can be formed into patties (about two 
inches square) and put back in the oven in a dripping 
pan for two or three days till these are very dark, 
turning occasionally. Put in cheese cloth bags and 
hang above the stove for a few days. Two pieces will 
make a pie. It will keep for years. For pies soak 
all night in soft water or very fresh milk, just enough 
to soak it up. Then use as any pumpkin. The easiest 
method of all is to simply cut without peeling, boil till 
tender, then with knife and fork peel from the boiling 
kettle and drop into jars; when making pies, dry out a 
little on top of stove. 


Pickles are very simple and easy to put up. Most 
all should be soaked in a weak solution of salt water 
over night; that is, ripe cucumbers, watermelon rind, 
string beans, little cucumbers, etc. The ripe cucum- 
bers look almost like the watermelon when finished. 
Cut the ends off the beans, peel and clean the water- 
melon and ripe cucumbers, steam till tender, which 
only takes a few minutes when cozies are used. Pack 
in jars and cover with hot vinegar syrup. If wanted 
fancy, follow the rule for pickled peaches; for every 
xlay use, make a syrup of about half water and vinegar 
And about two tablespoonfuls of sugar and nearly one 
^easpoonful of whole mixed spices to a quart. It is 
well to let the jars stand till they shrink and then fill 
to overflowing with hot syrup, not waiting till they 
are entirely cold. The little cucumbers may be cooked 


about five minutes in the syrup that they are to be put 
in, and little green tomatoes may be steamed or cooked 
in the syrup; tomatoes and cucumbers require a little 
stronger syrup than other vegetables or fruits. The 
large green tomatoes should be sliced or halved. 

All of the vegetables can be put up in coarse salt 
(even watermelon), adding a little cold brine, if neces- 
sary, when the crock is full ; then cover with clean 
white cloth, over that a clean board, over that a clean 
rock to keep them down, and on top of the jar another 
clean board or cover. They may need skimming for 
two or three days. When they are to be used, they 
must be soaked in cold water a day or two and then 
prepared any way desired. When pickling peppers, 
protect the hands from burning. 

Both cucumbers and green tomatoes are greatly im- 
proved if let stand 24 hours in each of two hot brines and 
also another 34 hours in hot vinegar before putting up in 
the last vinegar which may be flavored as one desires. 
Simply pour the hot liquid over them and change for 
fresh the next morning. Put up for good the third or 
fourth day. Some use cold liquid on tomatoes. Each 
vinegar may be diluted. 

^ ^one milk 



Written for the author by Miss Angeline Wood, Teacher Do- 
mestic Science, Stout Training Schools, 
Menominee, Wisconsin. 

Milk is one of our most valuable foods. It is a per- 
fect food for young children, as it contains all the ele- 
ments necessary for the nourishment of the child. For 
invalids it is almost a necessity, as it gives nourish- 
ment in an easily digested form. In the diet of grown 
persons, milk is a valuable addition, although it needs 
some starchy food with it to make a perfect diet. 

The composition of milk averages about three per 
cent proteid, four per cent fat, five per cent carbo- 
hydrate, one per cent mineral matter and eighty-seven 
per cent water. The proteid is the casein or curd 
that forms when milk thickens. This substance helps 
to build up the muscular tissues of the body. The 
fat is in the cream that rises to the surface, and the 
carbo-hydrate is the milk sugar. The fat and sugar 
furnish heat and energy to the body. There is also 
present in the milk a small quantity of mineral salts 
which are needed in the body principally to aid in 
forming the teeth and bones. 

As milk is of so much value in the diet, it is quite 
necessary that we should know how best to keep it. 
It is one of the most easily contaminated of foods, 
spoiling very quickly unless properly cared for. 

The spoiling of milk is caused by the bacteria or 
germs which get into it, and as it is an excellent food 
'•niqterial for them, they grow and multiply very rap- 
to overiA/[ilk also absorbs bad odors very easily, so that 
are entirely -cary to keep it where the air is sweet and 


clean. It is often contaminated, too, by dirt and filth 
getting into it from the cows' udders during the pro- 
cess of milking or by dust from the milker's clothing. 

If disease germs get into the milk, they often cause 
serious illness among those using the milk. Children, 
especially, are very susceptible to the effects of impure 
milk. Typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and other germ dis- 
eases are frequently traced to the milk supply. 

If we would have clean, pure milk, we must begin 
the care of it with the cow and the cow stable. The 
cow must be kept in a clean, light, well-ventilated barn 
or stable, and have good food and pure water so that 
she may be kept in good health. Only the milk from 
perfectly healthy cows should ever be used as food for 
human beings. Milk from cows that are out of condi- 
tion in any way or have any disease, is unfit for food, 
as it is likely to cause serious illness if used. A cow 
should never be whipped or worried. 

The cow should be groomed every day to keep her 
skin in a healthy condition and also to keep her clean 
so as to prevent any filth from falling into the milk. 
Likewise, the one doing the milking should be very 
careful to have his hands and clothing clean. In the 
modern dairies of today where everything is kept in 
a strictly sanitary condition, the barns are kept very 
clean and the cows clean and well groomed. The 
milkers wear fresh white suits and go to the milking 
with clean hands. The milk is drawn into covered 
pails and then taken from the barn immediately and 
quickly cooled. Every possible precaution is taken to 
have the milk perfectly clean and pure. 

In order to have pure milk, it must be clean, free 
from dirt of any kind, and as free as possible from bac- 
teria. This condition can only be had by keeping the 
cows clean and in good health, having the milking done 
under sanitary conditions, and by keeping the milk 


Even under the best conditions there will be a few 
bacteria present in the milk. The temperature of 
freshly drawn milk is the most favorable for the rapid 
growth of these bacteria, so in order to keep them from 
developing, the milk should be cooled rapidly imme- 
diately after milking, to as near 40 degrees F. as pos- 

The pails used for milking should be perfectly clean. 
To keep them clean they must be thoroughly washed 
with hot soap suds and then scalded with boiling water 
or steam and turned down to dry in a clean place, free 
from dust. All the dishes used in the home for milk 
should be carefully scalded every time they are 
washed. It is well to rinse straining cloths and all milk 
utensils with cold water before using hot soap suds. 

In the home, the milk must be kept in clean dishes, 
set in a cool place, free from dust or odor. If kept in 
a refrigerator, do not put it near any strong smelling 
food. Keep the milk on the bottom shelf and the 
other foods above. 

Pasteurized milk is milk that has been heated to a 
temperature of about 170 degrees F., then quickly 
cooled. This heating destroys practically all the germ 
life in the milk and insures its keeping a little longer. 
This method is not a guard against filth in the milk, 
but it renders harmless the germs that are present. 
It may be used in the home where one has reason to 
doubt the cleanliness of the milk supply. 

People who have to depend on the city milkman 
ought to take measures, if possible, to find out if the 
dairy from which the milk comes is kept in the proper 
sanitary condition. If one is careful to buy from a re- 
liable dealer one can be pretty certain of getting a good 
quality of milk. But there is so much dishonesty 
among dealers and so much carelessness and ignorance 
among dairymen that it becomes necessary for the 
consumer to protect himself. 



Ouf mental and physical ability to do our day's work 
depends largely upon the food we eat and wholly upon 
the food we eat, air we breathe, water we drink and 
the clothes we wear, or rather the way we wear our 
clothes, giving the organs plenty of movement and 

If there is only a given amount of money in a family 
to be used for the table^ it should be spent wisely and 
the food properly cooked or the working members will 
suffer for the need of strength and clearheadedness, 
while the children will not develop in mind and body 
as they should, so that the buying and preparation of 
food is a serious and responsible duty on the part of 
the housekeeper. 

To be successful, one needs a little knowledge of 
the chemistry of cooking, which is given in a simple 
way throughout this book. A good household maga- 
zine will give more, so that anyone can accomplish a 
great deal with a little thought and study. 

Food is taken into the body to build up and repair 
tissue and to generate energy. 

Foods may be divided into five classes, or principles, 

1. Water. 

Phosphate of Lime. 

2. Inorganic Salts-' 

Carbonate of Lime. Salt (Chloride of So- 

Phosphate of Magnesium. 

Salts of Potash. 
3 Proteids Albumens (White of Eggs). 

■ (Produce flesh) | ^as^^^s (Curd of sour Milk). 



f White of Eggs. 
I Casein of Milk. 
I Gluten of Grains. 
Nitrogenous. . . -i Fibrin of Meat. 

I Legumen — Pease, 
Beans, Lentils, 
t etc. 

r Butter. 
I Olive Oil. 

4. Fats J Cotton Seed Oil. 

(Produce heat) ^Lard^^^^^^.^^ 

I Butterine. 
I Cream. 

5. Starches f Starch — Beans, Pease, Lentils. 

(Produce ■' Sugar. 
[Energy] ] Gum. 
Work) I Dextrin. 

The average working man requires about four and 
a half ounces proteid, two ounces fat, seventeen and a 
half ounces starch, per day; one-third of the proteid 
should come from animals. If no other proteid is 
taken but lean meat, the average man requires about 
nine ounces; if cheese alone, five and one-half ounces; 
eggs, about seven good sized; including waste. 

Women and children require less of the principles 
than men. It is better to overdo proteid than not to 
have enough. Though meat is not essential to health, 
it does increase bodily vigor. 

We cannot substitute one food for another to repair 
the loss of that food in the system, as fats for proteids. 

When fats are oxidized or burned in the system, 
they produce more energy than an equal amount of 
the other foods. As they generate heat, large amounts 
are used in cold countries. The starches also generate 
heat. Cellulose (cell structure) is found to quite an 
extent in the starches, of which but little is digested, 
and what is digested, or absorbed, must first be con- 
verted into sugar. 

Though not digested, a little of it is good to give 


the bowels sufficient exercise, but the housewife must 
remove as much as she can or too much will cause 
irritation in the bowels and too much waste of undi- 
gested food. 

The nourishment or value of a food depends greatly 
upon the kind and proportion of its foodstuffs or com- 
position. The digestibility and value is greatly influ- 
enced by proper methods of cooking. There is waste 
that one is not responsible for, as the system can di- 
gest only a percentage of the materials taken, owing 
to the interference of cellulose and other things, and 
she must, therefore, feed a greater amount than the 
systerfl calls for to allow for this waste. This need 
not be a hard study, for just a little observation of the 
spirits of the family will tell her whether she is feed- 
ing correctly or not. Everyone feeling happy and am- 
bitious is a very good proof of being fed properly. They 
can wreck the system in many other ways besides eat- 
ing, so the housewife must not blame herself unreason- 
ably always for indisposition on their part. 

Enough of food should be taken to satisfy the appe- 
tite and still not cause distress, hence the foods should 
be properly combined. Were one to eat potatoes 
alone, he would take many times as much starch as 
needed and not a sufficient amount of fat, as they con- 
tain but a small percentage. One thus fed, lacks en- 
ergy and feels a heaviness and stupidness, too much 
starch producing indigestion from too much fermenta- 
tion, though digestion is due to fermentation. 

Potatoes, beans, oatmeal and corn are the cheapest 
foods. Butter or gravy should be eaten with bread 
to get the proportion of fat to starch as nearly correct 
as possible. 

Fats should be taken into the system only in a finely 
divided state ; butter is the easiest digested of all fats. 
Only rancid butter causes dyspepsia. Butter contains 


the same two fats (olein and margarine) as the oleo- 
margarine, but has other fats in addition. Olein is 
really the easiest fat to digest and butter has a goodly- 

Oleomargarine is made from the best beef fat and 
when not adulterated, is one of the healthy foods not 
equal to the best grade of butter but better than the 
poor. The prejudice towards it is not owing to the 
fat it contains but to some of the unclean places of 
making and unclean adulteration. However, there are 
some very good and clean grades and hard to detect 
from good butter. 

Butterine is a mixture of beef and hog fat oil. Only 
the best pieces of fat can be used for either. These 
give the workingman a -chance to get his proper 
amount of fat necessary for health. 

Lard is very hard to digest but of good value to 
those who can digest it. It is so hard to buy good 
lard that it is safer for the housewife to buy leaf lard 
and try it out for herself. Most everyone can use a 
little. People working out of doors can easily use it 
without it causing distress, but invalids never. 

Cottolene is a valuable vegetable oil, easier digested 
but not so rich as lard. Half each of cottolene and 
beef fat makes a very good shortening for every day 
use. Flour and meal are perishable (readily absorbing 
moisture, and, therefore, keep covered), and should 
only be bought in small quantities. These used to be 
stored in large quantities for winter, but the milling 
process is not the same now. More is given under 
"Bread." Meat differs very much in composition in 
different animals and different parts of the same ani- 
mal. The lean meats contain from 15 to 20 per cent 
proteids, the whole egg 12>4 proteids, cheese 25 to 30, 
dried codfish 30, potatoes about 75 per cent water and 
2 per cent proteid, not even ^ of 1 per cent of fat, 20 


per cent starch and very little cellulose and minerals. 
Scientists have made investigations and found how 
much and what kind of food is used by and needed for 
the system while working, how much is needed when 
not working and how much of the body itself is used 
up when no food is taken, as in starvation, A man, 
not working, can sustain life and fight off starving dis- 
eases on 35 ounces of good, wholesome bread per day, 
and a necessary amount of good water. It is as neces- 
sary for the housekeeper to know how much food is 
needed and what proportion for each, as for the farmer 
to know how much he should lay up for winter use 
for his stock, without waste, and ^till keep his stock 
thriving. (The waste in digestion cannot be helped). 

Nature furnishes us with two foods of most im- 
portance — air and water — which need but little atten- 
tion on the part of the housekeeper — any more than 
to keep them pure and fresh and see that each gets an 
abundance of both. 

It is necessary to study really only the three classes 
— proteids, fats and starches — and in making up the 
daily menus, to remember the body requires those 
three in proper proportion. Knowing this, it is then 
necessary to fix or flavor them in a way that will tickle 
the palate and stimulate the appetite. Having bought 
wisely, she must cook wisely, so as to get all the food 
value out of the food and also learn to make palatable 
dishes from the leftovers. Not a teaspoonful of food 
should be thrown away. The water and the minerals 
seem to take care of themselves. 

The part of the fats which are not oxidized or burned 
are stored as fat for the body. Making soups is one 
good way of getting food value for a little money. 
Much can be saved in making hash, stews, meat loaf, 
patties and many other things. 

The thrifty housewife will not throw away even 


one teaspoonful of anything clean, and of nutritious 
value. The cream pitchers, milk bottles and pans 
can be rinsed with a tiny bit of cold water, loosening 
any that may have gathered on the side with a silver 
knife, pour into a jelly glass with a cover, and use for 
baking. The gravy of roasts and steaks can be rinsed 
from spider, dripping pan, platter or dish with a little 
hot water and saved in some little receptacle for hash, 
meat loaves, etc. It contains such valuable nutriment 
that it is well worth the trouble to save it. From drip- 
ping pan and spider it should be saved immediately, 
as standing discolors it. Many are ill nourished which 
could be remedied to a certain extent by saving these 
things. On can manage so that they won't even throw 
away a crumb of bread, for these have so many uses. 
Two nice clean shoe boxes, with covers, or better 
still, two large covered tin cans or quart pails, starting 
a fresh one every three or four days and air the other, 
are good receptacles for dry bread and crumbs. The 
meat grinder is fine for preparing crumbs for breading 
croquettes, meats, etc. Not possessing the grinder, 
roll with a rolling pin or round bottle or grate. Enough 
can be made at once for a week or more and kept sep- 
arate from the other crumbs, in a tight baking powder 

Milk is such a valuable food that if one can only 
afford a pint a day, get that pint and let the children 
have at least a tablespoonful. Serve it in little wine- 
glasses in its fresh state — boiling lessens the nourish- 
ment. It is better to buy only a pint of good milk 
and water it one's self, than to buy three pints of the 
cheap milk, not knowing what is in it. The laws are 
becoming so strict that it is getting more and more 
clean and pure so that we can use it without scalding, 
as it should be used. It would be well for all, could 
we afford it, to drink at least two glasses of good milk 


each day, but if we cannot afford it, then aim to get 
at least a tablespoonful, and the children especially. 
When there is a "bottle" baby, its milk should be pre- 
pared in the five or six bottles and not mixed with the 
rest or disturbed. If one has not the money for baby's 
milk, appeal to some good society for it. It is unchar- 
itable and cruel to let the baby suffer and the time 
might come when one can return the goodness of the 
society in some way, or help some other p.oor baby. 

With both baby and children, beware of stunted 
bodies^ stunted minds and stunted health through life. 

In having to manage with little money, the children 
should be taught intelligently and kindly the circum- 
stances, and they will not find fault with the wineglass 
of milk or other things that mother is doing her best 
with — that is, planning and cooking to give all the 
food value she can without waste. Make them inter- 
ested in building up their own home, which should be 
one of the chief aims of all ; this aids building of char- 
acter, which comes first and results in healthy minds 
and bodies. Though they may be irritable at times, 
they will understand at others. 

As a rule, children are fed too much solid foods, 
overheating the blood and clouding the brain, keeping 
heart and digestive organs always under the highest 
strain, and never rested. The digestive organs of a 
child require more rest than do those of the grown 
adult, and we have also a failing of not allowing pro- 
teid enough, either for ourselves or the children — 
using too much fat, starch and cellulose. 

There is a normal demand for greater frequency in 
supply of food for children^ but not for greater quan- 
tity. Quality is more important than quantity. 

A child's health should be considered as well as his 
character, making the battle of life he is so soon to 
enter of great interest. A normal man, who spends a 


great deal of time in the fresh air, can live on about 
five pounds of food daily and almost two pounds of 
this should be liquid food. It has been found that 
some children about ten years of age, are fed seven 
and a half to nine pounds of solid food per day. If 
children need food between meals, it should be at reg- 
ular intervals and a liquid food is best. Nothing equals 
a glass of good milk, even good skimmed milk, prop- 
erly cared for, is of great value to the system, or a 
piece or two of good, homemade candy or good quality 
of confectioner's, and plenty of water is very often all 
that they need. Water will often allay hunger. 

Children should be trained to like and eat what is 
good for them and not let their tastes become finicky, 
which makes it so hard for them in later years and 
often very trying for others. Use neither tyranny nor 
indulgence in so training them. 

Common salt (chloride of sodium) aids in digestion 
and assimilation of food. It helps to keep the blood 
in an alkaline state (not too acid) and also a fluid 

Fruit is valuable on account of the sugar it contains 
and its flavor due to fruit acids with the sugar, and 
can be used to disguise things we do not like and still 
ought to have. 

Seasoning, like fruit, is of great value in making 
good, plain food palatable, thus stimulating the appe- 
tite and aiding digestion, but like all other good things, 
must be used with discretion. For instance, sugar or 
too much cream on oatmeal or other breakfast food, 
is not good, as it interferes with the proper digestion 
of that food, while taken in a piece of candy for lunch 
or with a light dessert, is very beneficial. 

Food for cold lunch. — Many working men and chil- 
dren, mostly in country schools, carry cold lunch, and 
it means much to their success to have the lunch as 


dainty as one can. No man or child wants a lunch 
from a basket or pail that smells of the dinner pail 
smell, nor bread and pie soaked with pickles. The pail 
should be washed as particularly as a milk bottle and 
left open all night, then with the aid of some good 
paraffin paper to wrap moist things, as pudding, salad, 
pie, etc., and a couple of little salve jars with good 
covers, from the druggist, for salt and cooked fruit, 
and many little dainties, also strips of pasteboard, one 
can pack a lunch to tempt the king. A bottle with a 
little fruit syrup or lemon syrup for lemonade or 
fruit drink, or occasionally cold cofifee; milk, if one 
can afford it, is excellent. Always have food real cold 
before packing as one would before putting in the 
icebox. _ 


As water forms more than two-thirds of the weight 
of our bodies, and is thrown off by means of lungs, 
skin and excreta (bowels and kidneys), it is very im- 
portant in order to keep the system in its fluid and 
natural condition, to drink plenty of water, at least 
three pints a day, besides what our food contains. It 
is better to drink it between meals, though a little 
taken moderately at our meals does no harm. It is the 
means of carrying all the nutriment to the different 
parts of the body and carrying away the wastes, so it 
is easy to see nourishment of the body would be im- 
possible without it; even the nerves are benefitted, 
hence very good for nervous people. It is not only a 
carrier, but a cleanser. A good bowl of hot water or 
a glass of cold water an hour before breakfast or any 
meal is a good appetizer, not to speak of the number- 
less other benefits. 

There are several kinds of water used for drinking 
purposes. That from surface wells is always to be 



suspicioned, and also that supplied to cities and towns 
from rivers and lakes. It is always well to boil it, 
which drives out the gases, causing a flat taste, but 
if cooled, settled and poured from pitcher to pitcher 
in the open air, it improves the taste. Water will form 
in the body itself where two molecules of hydrogen 
come in contact with one of oxygen. 

Sterilized water is water well boiled and if used 
for sterile purposes, must be kept in sterile recepta- 
cles and covered with sterile covering. Sterile means 
perfectly clean, free from germs, hence it must not 
come in contact with the hands or anything not sterile. 

For albuminized water and cinnamon water, see 

Best and cheapest foods — Oxygen (fresh air) first, 
last and all the time, day and night. It is the most 
important constituent for the support of life. Next 
comes plenty of water. 

Other principles of foods are given at beginning of 
chapters and with some of the recipes. 

Some Foods that should NEVER be found on the 



Underdone Veal. 

Half cooked Cabbage. 

Cheese (too often.) 

Green melons. 

Unripe fruit. 

Suet Pudding (too often) 

Must be well done. 
Heavy dumplings. 
Fried things saturated in 

Fried hash. 
Too much pie. 
Underdone Oatmeal. 
Leathery fried eggs. 
Heavy breakfasts. 
Heavy Biscuit. 

15. Sour bread. 

16. Pork (too often.) 

17. Too much bacon in sum- 


18. Fried potatoes, three times 

a day. 

from can 
^ recooked. 

21. Canned fruit, unless re- 


22. ■ Canned goods that cannot 

be recooked. 

19. Canned meats 

20. Canned fish 



Composition of a Few of the Common Foods. 

Figures are only approximate, not accurate. 







Pease, Beans, Lentils. 

Cocoa Seed. 


Salmon, Fr 



Beef, lean 

Beef, fat 

Beans (navy) 

Beans (Lima) 

Butter ^... 


Codfish (fresh) 

Eggs (uncooked) 





Potatoes (Sweet) ... 

Pork, fat 

Pork, lean 











































































- .7 


















































*Gum 5, Sus;ar 1. 
tSugar 2, Gum 2. 
JIncIuding Sugar and Gum. 
§Including Gum. 



As a good many recipes have been given through- 
out the book for the sick, I will simply give a few hints 
on the care of the sick and a few extra recipes. 

Nearly all . of the two chapters on "Drinks" and 
"Soups" can be used for the sick, except a few things 
that may be forbidden for a time by the physician, 
having his own reason for forbidding them — for in- 
stance, a raw egg is one of the most valuable of foods 
for sick, convalescent, strenyous workers and nervous 
people, but there are a few, rare cases where they must 
not be used, that is, for a time at least; in some cases 
only the white is forbidden. 

There is nothing that makes one so nervous, irrit- 
able and disagreeable as a bad stomach. The whole 
system suffers and strength wears away for the want 
of preparation of building material in a good, clean 
stomach. One may have just what they need pre- 
pared, perfectly, yet spoiled by bad habits of eating, 
which are readily acquired but difficult to break. Eat 
slowly only what can be digested and only as much 
as can be digested, and drink as little as possible with 
meals, and drinks with meals should be warm. The 
best time for cold drinks is one hour before or two 
hours after eating. If one cannot stand cold water, 
then they should drink plenty of hot (occasionally put- 
ting in a little salt), which is the best of all drinks for 
indigestion, cramps, nervousness or any ailment. It is 
simply invaluable, slow but sure and must be sipped 
slowly with a spoon as there is danger of dilating the 
stomach by taking too fast. Four large cups of hot 


water taken one-half hour apart, without eating any- 
thing, and lying quietly, will cure severe cases of 
cramps. If relief does not come in two hours, then 
it is necessary to call a physician, though one might 
first take an enema of warm water, (salt), or just 
plain warm water, from one to three quarts. This will 
often give instant relief or may be repeated in half an 
hour, if still suffering. Oftentimes before taking the 
four cups of hot water, it is well to drink a pint or 
quart of luke warm, salted water (on^ teaspoonful of 
salt to one quart), and immediately vomit, thus wash- 
ing out the stomach ; then after resting a few minutes 
proceed with the four cups of hot water as directed 
above. If one cannot vomit, it will do no harm, only 
rest about an hour before starting the hot water cure. 
It is only about one case in twenty that won't be able 
to vomit. In such cases of very acute indigestion, it 
is best to call one's physician, who will see that the 
stomach is cleaned as quickly as possible, as those at- 
tacks are rather severe on even the strongest heart 
and other vital organs. 

For those in bed, that is, very sick patients, no mat- 
ter what the case may be, give but little food and give 
often with plenty of water, hot or cold, midway be- 
tween. A tumbler of good milk every three hours, be- 
ginning early, say 6 a. m. (6-9-13-3-6-9) with one or 
two of same during the night if patient wakes up, is 
sufficient diet for six weeks. Other drinks can be sub- 
stituted for the milk but it is well to give as much 
milk as possible if it has been properly taken care of. 
It is best to keep it in small closed bottles in the 

If a patient cannot stand as much as above, then 
give a wineglass every two hours, or a tablespoonful 
every half hour for a few days till he gains sufficient 
strength, or even less than this. Oftentimes it is well 



to let him go a half or whole day without nourishment, 
giving plenty of hot water, in say, wineglass doses, 
every half hour or hour. 

With a convalescent or strenuous worker who 
should take just as good care of himself whether 
the work be mental or physical labor, some foods that 
may not agree with him in one method of preparation 
may be very agreeable and digestible under other care- 
ful methods, and often one can digest and assimilate 
what may not be palatable to him but should aim to 
cultivate a taste for it because of the good and virtue 
he may get out of it, and because he needs it. 

For instance, oatmeal, which so many dislike, after 
long, car-eful cooking, converting some of the indigest- 
ible things about it into digestible, wholesome food, 
is one of the cheapest and most valuable foods and 
one should train himself to eat it without sugar. 
Children should be trained to eat it thus and given 
only in small quantities so they will not lose a taste 
for it. If one can afford cream, it is very nice, but if 
not, use the top milk, which is about seven or eight 
per cent cream. It is better to syphon or take off care- 
fully with a spoon, but it can be carefully poured into 
the pitcher. There is quite a difference in the propor- 
tion of elements in the top half of milk and in the bot- 
tom half, after it stands without disturbing for five or 
six hours. This bottom milk is indispenible for a few 
rare kidney cases where cream and eggs are forbidden, 
in fact, it would make a perfect diet for them for two 
or three weeks at a time, not forgetting plenty of water 
between. Buttermilk and koumyss are also good in 
these cases, buttermilk being the best. Buttermilk is 
excellent in most all cases but must be careful not to 
overtax the stomach. When one needs nourishment 
between meals, a raw egg beaten with a little salt 
and drunk, is a great tonic. If one cannot take it, then 


approach it as nearly as possible by adding a pinch of 
sugar and a little milk till you can cultivate a taste 
for it. 

Buttermilk, an occasional dish of good, healthy ice 
cream (plain, not that highly flavored, as most flavor- 
ings are poisonous, especially vanilla), a cup of junket, 
or two or three milk tablets (Horlick's malted), and 
many other little things, make a very nourishing as 
well as a varied diet between meals. The two chapters 
mentioned will give ideas also of diet to use for nour- 
ishment between meals, using flavorings as little as 
possible; they tax a weak stomach too much. 

A few desserts for young children and convalescents 

or any having weak stomachs : 

Junket. Plain Custard. 

Rice Pudding without raisins. Small Amount Ice Cream 

Baked Apples. (Nice cold with (Plain.) 

cream.) Prunes. 

Pears. Peaches. 

Diet after an acute attack of indigestion : 

Broth. Greatly diluted milk. 

Thin gruel. Whey. 

Small amounts of properly heated milk (in double 
boiler till it sort of foams or begins to form a scum on 
top). In heating milk, if without a double boiler, just 
scald but never boil. 

The chapter on "Eggs" gives a few nice dishes for 
the sick and a few dishes in other chapters. If I cajn, 
I will have dishes marked in the index with a star or 
separate list made which can be used for those not 
on regular diet. 

I want also to note the importance of Zweibach for a 
delicate stomach. It seems to do the work physicians ^. -i 
recommend to do. j no*"o 

Raw eggs in warm weather should not be mort j f-'iid 
than three days old when used for invalids. In facie ^re is 
at any time, the fresher eggs and milk are the bettou extra 


Lard should never be used' for cooking except for 
the strongest, and then only limited. 

Drowsiness, lack of ambition, that awful tired feel- 
ing and many other things are symptoms of indiges- 
tion from which one may not know they are suffering. 
Lack of relaxation will cause the severest forms of in- 
digestion and constipation. The strenuous workers, 
instead of having to dress up after their hard day's 
work, should lounge in loose clothing and have their 
dinner in quiet and comfort. 

Never ask an invalid what he will have to eat. Try 
to vary the bill of fare each day, serving only one or 
two dishes at a time, in small amounts and as daintily 
as possible, using the prettiest dishes and napkins that 
one has. If permitted, weak tea or coffee occasionally, 
put in a little heated teapot, as a patient enjoys pour- 
ing it himself. For warm foods, heat all the dishes 
used, and for cold, have the dishes cold. Avoid slop- 
ping or spilling. The room should also be as dainty as 
possible. Carpets will soon be a thing of the past, but 
if obliged to use one on the floor, sponge it first with a 
cloth wrung tightly out of warm ammonia or borax 
water before sweeping, or use dampened sawdust, but 
raise no dust or the very least possible. Never shake 
a dust rag in the sick room, or any other room, and 
use a clean one every day, or at least every other day. 
Leave no soiled clothing or utensils in the room. In 
short, keep everything scrupulously clean — patient, 
room and cooking — keeping simplicity and pleasant- 
ness always in mind. It would be well if one bedroom 
could have a fireplace, which adds so much to the 
cheerfulness of the room as well as for ventilation, but 
"ew of us can afford this, though we can make up for 
i in many ways. 

bAvoid company and the advice of so many friends, 
anjch make the patient restless and dissatisfied, bin- 


dering his getting the rest which is as essential to his 
getting better, as good cooking and the doctor's care, 
though at times a hint helps us over some point 
that is puzzling. Avoid noise both about the house 
and in performing the duties about the sick room. 

Cream taken in small quantities is more digestible 
than milk. 

A patient should always have his dishes freshly 

Oatmeal is the most nourishing of grains. Rice is 
very important as it affords both nourishment and 
healing or soothing properties. Rice water is a very 
valuable drink. 

Gelatine contains but little or no nourishment but 
it is appetizing and can be used to make other foods 
palatable and pleasant. 

Cornmeal gruel is a valuable article of diet for those 
who can digest it, but there are a few who can take 
only a very small quantity of it. It is a heat producer, 
good for those who suffer from the cold and who find 
it hard to keep warm. 

The tenderloin part of the porterhouse steak can 
be given to most invalids, the juice from another piece 
squeezed over it. Serve with half a slice of bread, 
toasted, or a salted wafer, or a twice baked potato, if 
invalid is strong enough. 

Veal and pork should be avoided. 

Beef tea or beef juice can be given in teaspoonful 
doses to patient who is very weak. When squeezing 
juice from beef, keep the bowl in hot water and serve 
immediately with a Httle salt and wafer. Before 
squeezing, merely heat the steak by broiling a minute^' -'^ 
or two to help free the juices. A half of a beaten egg ^9*"^ 
raw, may be added to beef tea and many other drini -^ ^-'^^y- 

A few broths are given in chapter on soups. Oj ^^ -re is 
kinds can be made after the same principles. Pr-ou extra 
14 Jt^ 


attention to the brandy, wine and patent medicine 
cures; the after effects are worse than the disease. 
Ginger tea is almost as bad though a little may be 
used to quiet pain till one gets the system starting its 

Milk loast, properly made, should not be forgotten 
for the mvalid. 


Besides the method already given, another is to 
break an egg in a small tumbler, put a few drops of 
lemon juice on it and swallow whole. Some use a 
teaspoonful of brandy, but avoid it if possible. A tea- 
spoonful of port wine or sherry and a teaspoonful of 
sugar beaten with the egg, yolk and white separately 
or together. This will do till one can get accustomed 
to taking the egg without these things. An occa- 
sional flavoring for a patient, of these things, is not 
out of the way if judgment is used, but on no account 
should they be given as a beverage. 


Make a thin paste of two heaping teaspoonfuls of 
rice flour and a little cold water. Add to it a coffee 
cupful of boiling water. Sweeten to taste with loaf 
sugar. Boil till it is transparent. Flavor with a piece 
of stick cinnamon, lemon juice or other fruit juice, 
pour into a pretty dish or bowl to mold. 


Make in same way. 


■,^ Can be made same as rice jelly except use about a 
^ ^rt of boiling water to one tablespoonful of rice 
J3^/^r. May be taken hot or cold. Plain rice may be 
anjc^and strained. 



A small handful of moss, about an ounce or a little 
more (to be purchased at any drug store), wash very 
carefully and put in one quart of milk on the fire. Let 
it simmer twenty minutes or till moss begins to dis- 
solve. Then remove from the fire and strain through 
a fine sieve. Add two tablespoonfuls of sugar and 
flavor if desired. Put away to harden in cups or molds. 
Serve with cream and sugar. 


Two tablespoonfuls of flax seed, one pint of boiling 
water, let stand in a very warm place for three or four 
hours, but not on the lire. Strain through linen cloth, 
flavoi with licorice root or piece of lemon. Excellent 
for a cough. A tumblerful may be taken at a time. 
Should always be made fresh. The lemonade is made 
the same way only it may be simmered, the juice of 
a lemon added, strained and sweetened to taste. Drink 
hot, also good for a cough, 


Pour boiling water on pitcher or bowl filled with 
slightly buttered and salted toast. Let stand a minute 
or two and pour into a warm cup. Serve at once. 


Shave from round or sirloin steak a few thin, tiny 
pieces, enough to cover a slice of toast. Place on 
pancake turner and drop for a half minute in a tea- 
spoonful of sizzling butter, turning once, lay on ? -" 
warm saucer for a minute while you add a tablespoo ^?^ 
ful or so of boiling water to the juice in spider — ''/'^•, 

toast in and turn, then lay on warm plate, pu ^^ '" 

r ' 1 • • ■ • • .ou extra 

meat on top of toast and pour remammg juice, 


over this. A little extra piece of meat may be cooked 
with it so as to have plenty of juice. On no account 
should it be scorched. Flavor with salt. This is very 
much relished. 


This is better for infants and invalids than sugar. It 
is very high priced, about fifty cents a pound, and can 
only be bought at the druggists. 


This will form either a hard ball or a powder, accord- 
ing to the amount used. Take a double handful of 
flour or a pint, tie up tightly in a cloth and put in a 
kettle of boiling water, boil from three to six hours, take 
out, remove the cloth, and it will be a hard round ball 
or a ball with powdery center. Keep in a cool, dry 
place and when wanted for use, prepare by placing some 
sweet milk in double boiler and grating in enough of the 
flour to make it as thick as you desire. Flavor with a 
little salt and just stir with a stick of cinnamon to flavor 
if liked. This can be given to rather young babies, say 
six or nine months. Excellent for anyone, especially 
suffering from summer complaint. 

One often hears complaints that there are such a few 
things that can be prepared for the sick, but it seems a 
two hundred page volume could be easily filled with 
recipes for delicacies and nourishing things for the sick. 


( nots 

^ . f'iid 

le -^e is 
.ou extra 

'From homes like these Scotland's grandeur rises." 

— "Cotter's Saturday Night." 

"Not every woman can transform a house into a home." 
Is this true where she tries? 





Home — The greatest institution on earth. 

Health, a well regulated household, and above all a 
happy home depend more upon the mother than any 
other member of the family. 

To accomplish this great work she must study herself 
and keep her physical condition at its best for that is the 
foundation of her happiness which will be imparted to 
the rest of the family. 

Home-making, like music, or any other profession, is 
an endless study, an art, and she must constantly plan to 
save herself and still keep the house sanitary and pleas- 
ant and the meals as palatable and scientific as she knows 

Scientific cooking does not mean fancy or expensive 
cooking as many people think, but rather economical and 
wise cooking. It means getting all the food value out 
of all foods in such a way that even the most tired and 
over-worked body can easily assimilate and digest it. 
Few understand this to be part of their duty, but it is an 
important one and . becomes a great pleasure and very, 
interesting as one advances in it. It is a duty, which, 
combined with the greater one of child training deserves 
the greatest crown of glory in Heaven. Few realize 
that by doing this conscientiously they are living the life 
that Christ taught them, and are a great factor. in the 
building of a noble nation, The individual home mak/-"" 
a country's goodness and greatness. ^?"^ 

I mean this article to help the mother, or as is 6'"'^ ^[ 

times the very sad case, that other who is try.^' ^^ ^''^ ^^ 

]ou extra 


take the place of the mother; it may be a sister of the 
father or mother, the oldest daughter, or often a hired 
stranger whose profession they do not realize, is one of 
the noblest and grandest. 

This book and this special article is born of the sym- 
pathy gained as a professional nurse in homes both rich 
and poor. There is scarcely a rule or recipe given which 
has not been suggested by some personal experience in 
which I found that there were many needing what I had 
discovered only through hard study, long research and 
difficult experimentation. For the benefit of these" sim- 
ilarly situated I issue it. To begin wath, it is always a 
mistake to look for too quick results, or to expect ap- 
preciation of your work.. People who have good ideas 
often hesitate to express them for fear they will not be 
appreciated. Do not hesitate — to speak may help some- 
one and the Lord takes care of results ; they may not 
show for years, till long after death, but the good is 
working just the same. Right here, I will say, do not 
do anything for worldly appreciation, but because it is 
needed and for God alone. Away back in one of the old 
second or third readers I remember a little verse, 'T 
cannot do much, said a little Star, to make this dark 
world bright," etc. To do your duty, one of the first 
and best laws you might follow is. Do not worry, it is 
a sin to worry. You do not trust God by so doing. 
Second law — Refuse to be a drudge. These two cover 
so much ground it would take a volume to tell it — to 
do it justice. Change drudgery to pleasure "learn how 
to lose time in order to gain it, and that time lost is well 
spent if put upon both the training of ourselves and the 
children, including plenty of rest and relaxation for both 
nd profitable pleasure." Nature furnishes enough for 
'" of us if we will only take advantage of the golden 
t ortunities she gives us. Froebel says "From every- 
bA- in nature there is a way to God." This also 


means the way to true happiness. If one can't study it 
out for themselves there are now an abundance of good 
magazines, books, etc. If we will only read the right 
articles, and every line of some of them is worthy of 

Heretofore magazines seemed to be beyond the needs 
of the people but they seem to come nearer and nearer 
to us ; more practical and simple each year. One or two 
is enough to subscribe for if all the good they contain 
is taken out of them, and the more one reads them the 
more you like and long for them to come. Oftentimes 
little articles in the newspapers happen to be just what 
we want to have and help over a puzzling place. 

Hannah Whitall Smith says : "See to it that your 
boys and girls, when they grow up, do not remember 
you as an anxious, worried, irritable mother; but live 
such a life of trust before them that they will have al- 
ways a picture of peace and trust when they think of 
you." Don't get discouraged because you have not al- 
ways been so. "Look not mournfully into the past; 
it will return no more, vv^isely improve the present, and 
go forth into the shadowy future without fear and 
with a manly heart." 

After taking up the work of happy home-making you 
will meet with grumbling, dissatisfaction and all kinds of 
discouragement and become impatient yourself; simply 
never mind but keep working on quietly and in the 
course of time those things will pass away. Mrs. J. 
Daving Power, of Ireland, writes: 

"Be brave, poor stricken heart, be brave ; 

Despair not ; hope on ; pray, 

From out the land beyond the grave ^^ 

There gHmmers still a ray, no*">'' 

A tiny beam, a hopeful light j f-'nd^ 

That piercest deepest gloom, , ' .^ 

And proves those murky clouds of night ^^ "-^ ^^ 

But guide to lead you home. .'ou extra 


Your cross is heavy; ah, I know, 

'Tis hard — too hard — to bear ; 
But He who suffered pain and woe 

Gave way not to despair, 
'The heavy cross, the brilliant crown' 

'Tis proof that God has given ; 
The few He chooses for His own 

Go perfect into heaven." 

The' training of the child begins in infancy; it should 
begin the very day of its birth ; regular habits of sleeping 
and feeding. Between the age of two and three years 
a tiny task begun ; it may take it weeks and even months 
to learn one small thing and then roughly, but the little 
untrained hand is learning, just the same. A child should 
not be given more than it is able to do and finish or it 
will become careless and indolent. It is true that it is 
easier to do a thing one's self, but it is not justice to the 
child, especially when they are beginning to learn to cook 
and do housework. Teach them the best method you 
know and allow them to originate some of their own. 
Make the work interesting and they will enjoy it. It 
matters not what their future work will be, this training 
is the one that will make or mar the success of the future 
by forming the habits of industry, honesty, etc. Be care- 
ful not to punish or ever whip a child for what it does 
not do or can't understand. Children love protection 
and we should be their protectors. It is wrong to look 
for judgment and experience in them for there are no 
harder workers in a world that is brand new to them 
than the children. New tasks are hard for ourselves the 
first few times and still harder for the youth. *A wise man 
says, the greatest education of a child's life comes be- 
fore he is seven years old. Think of the responsibility 
■••f a mother ; Do not worry about this ; rear the child 

'nle it is still with you to the highest ideals by means 

* noted Catholic sister said: "Give me a child till it is four years old 
C . -"re not who takes it after that." Dr. Newman says: "Train the child 
, .' is horn." The writer hopes he will write a simple little book on 
DA' " Influence" for the benefit of poor mothers. 



of good books, good pictures, beautiful flowers, habits 
of industry, regular and conscientious attendance at 
school (very important) and so on. Gain the child's 
confidence and constantly strive to educate yourself. 
They must not only be taught to speak the truth, but to 
feel it and act it. Live only for this ; God asks no more. 
Do not make it too hard for them to confess the truth 
by too severe punishment. 

The Third Rule— "And the greatest of all these is 
Charity." Not only practice charity in your home, but 
carry it out unconsciously to other homes. Not the 
charity that consists in alms-giving, but that which 
thinketh and speaketh not evil. Help brighten and beau- 
tify the lives of other people. Never be sorrowful ; this 
is intensely selfish. 

A little incident came under my notice some years 
ago which made an impression on me. The mother of 
a poor family was taken seriously ill very suddenly, a 
neighboring lady came in to visit and did not ask what 
she could do, but seeing a basket of clothes to wash, 
slipped them out unknown to anyone and brought them 
back next morning nicely washed and ironed. She then 
did many other needful little things in such a quiet 
neat way that her very movement showed she wanted 
that mother spared to her two little children, and was 
a great comfort to all. 

This is visiting the sick. This is also making another 
home happy when the poor mother was not able, and 
above all, it was charity, and she talked not of the faults 
of the home. 

"Do not look for wrong or evil. 
You will find them, if you do." ^^i 

I quote from a newspaper a short article entitl^Q^.^ 
"What a woman can do," which expresses a few o-5j fiid 
sentiments on the making of a happy home — "Thej-g ^re is 
three things that every woman might do to helfQ^ extra 
tify the world and make life worth living. One^^ v 


is by making her person as beautiful as she can by ob- 
serving the laws of health and preserving that tranquil, 
truthful state of mind which is reflected in the face and 

Another is to learn to beautify her dress. This does 
not mean to increase its complexity or its adherance to 
the changes of fashion, but rather to study and experi- 
ment until she finds out what gown, colors and styles 
are most becoming to her, and then adopt these in hair- 
dressing and garment. 

The third is to beautify the place wherein she lives, 
whether it is one room or a spacious home. Weed out 
the wrong and needless things ; re-arrange the others, 
and force your dwelling place to express, in some way, 
your own feelings after what is beautiful and true. 

She may not be able to take part in great civic move- 
ments. The circle of her influence may be a small one ; 
yet if there is in her an ideal of beauty, which finds its 
expression in the steadfast improvement of her home, 
her health and her dress, she is doing true artistic work. 
All reforms and all progress begin with and work out 
through the individual." 

The home should be a retreat where one could rest in 
tranquil peace, shut out the cares of the world, refresh 
the tired system, and hence, the success of its individuals 
in the outer world. A study of color is one of the great 
aids in the part of your profession. 

I want to speak of the health part of it again for 
without this all work is in vain. If one cannot be en- 
tirely well and strong, then do the next best thing by 
aiming at it as closely as you can. Keep in your pos- 
'?ssion two or three good cook books (one is enough if 

Vs the right kind, but the more the better) and pay 

'* attention to the principles than the recipes so that 

^ • 'ill learn to put the very best into the system. You 

D*^' rn far more from the principles than from the 


recipes, that is of value to you. You can make up your 
own recipes according to your needs and means. Good 
cooking means so much to the individual, to the home, 
to the nation. Good physical condition must bring about 
good moral standing. If the inmates of the home, both 
large and small, have to work very hard, see to it that 
they are properly nourished and have plenty of rest and 
as much fresh air as possible. Hard work is good for 
all, if it is wisely limited and accompanied by proper rest 
and nourishment. Have regular hours for sleep and 
never neglect them. Late hours, loss of rest, and lack 
of fresh air, have caused more tuberculosis than all 
other evils put together. We cook too fast, eat too 
fast, live too fast. 

Besides studying her cook books, the home-maker 
should consult the public library occasionally, which 
costs nothing ; she will find abundance of books and mag- 
azines, though she should subscribe to at least one 
magazine in her line of work. 

The Mother's Magazine, if read carefully all through 
will benefit and encourage her. One of the hardest 
things for a mother to learn is how to relax and rest. 
Here is a little rule given by some doctor : "Never 
stand when you can sit, and never sit when you can lie." 
This does help to prevent som.e of that awful weariness. 
Never despair, it is fatal. Though one works and strug- 
gles and fails, the effort itself is success. Devote at 
least one-half hour a day to your magazines and books. 
You can make this half hour serve three things. Let it 
be in a quiet place, in an easy chair and in the open air. 
You will then be doing three things at once; gettinp^ 
fresh air, resting and educating yourself — not to spean 
of the pleasure it will mean to you in years to cono^^i 
If you cannot get that half hour some days, therS f.'iid 
days when you can get two hours and make up fie -le is 
time. ,ou extra 



Here is from a noted statesman : "The criterion of a 
man's character is the degree of respect he has for a 
woman. I am more grateful to God for the sense that 
came to me, through my mother and sisters, of the sub- 
stantial integrity, purity and nobility of womanhood 
than for almost anything else in the world." This shows 
that "The hand that rocks the cradle is the hand that 
rules the world." Is there anything more sad than to 
hear a father or mother swear at the children ; call them 
hard names and use foul language. Think of what it 
means to that little life, what a poor citizen it will be- 
come, and what a worthless factor in doing God's work. 
Supposing that they are little "know-nothings" and 
"good-for-nothings," they are just as nature made them 
and the little untrained hands and minds are bound to 
learn if you will just study the simple ways of making 
them what they should be, which becomes more and 
more of a pleasure as you advance. You will get impa- 
tient and angry at times but don't let it discourage you. 
By trying you will overcome these things in time, and 
if another member of the household shows anger and 
makes it a habit, study the plan of curing it. Never 
give up, plod on, the result is bound to come, although 
it may not be for years. 

Don't think a magazine or book worthless because 
you cannot use all there is in it; what is not a benefit to 
you will be to someone else, and by reading all you can 
you learn to be more sympathetic and charitable toward 
others, broader minded and a pleasure to others. 

Before closing I must touch upon a sin practiced 

so much, and so unconsciously in our homes, and 

^1:. seems to me more so among the poor than the 

•,h; it is extravagance. Read what Miss Willard 

I , "It should not be tolerated in speech, dress, 

L Vt'te, thoughts or action. Extravagance is the 

„ • , of lies and a sister to eventual penury and 
an^ci' '^ 


shame. I pray for the coming of the hour when 
we shall eliminate excesses from all our doings. 
It brings so much more content and happiness to find a 
happy medium for all actions, to keep the human pen- 
dulum from swinging too far either way. When this 
shall be accomplished the millenium will be thousands of 
years nearer." Read the "Simple Life." Love the sim- 
ple life, and live the simple life. This does not mean 
being shiftless by any means. Another detriment is idle- 
ness; it always makes an unhappy home. The girls are 
listless ; they are constantly ill or "blue," never conscien- 
tious nor punctual; the boys are indifferent, lack cour- 
age and self-respect, cannot assume interest in anything. 
Don't let this condition exist. Occupation is the great 
thing and they will find plenty near them to do if they 
will only search and study it out. Always keep in view 
the moral training of both boys and girls ; the boys should 
be brought up just as clean and pure as the girls. The 
children can make mother's steps fewer, and there is joy 
in finding kindnesses and surprises for each other. A 
brother's room make as attractive as you can, and the 
best you can afford. He may not appreciate it now, but 
in years to come he will look back upon -it, and it will 
in some way, better his character. It seems to me the 
saddest mistake among the rich is indulgence. Think 
of the awful effect upon the character of a child, who 
might be great if he were not spoiled. 

"Mie saddest mistake among the poor is shiftlessness 
often owing to discouragement and lack of interest in 
life, and a false idea of pleasure ; -mistake dissipation for 
pleasure. For instance, the public dance hall, which fill^ 
our hospitals with wrecks and our homes with unhaiin 
piness, and our society with fallen girls. Jane Adam^ho^-^ 
doing wonders towards correcting this evil, let U5 f-iid 
help her if it is only by a little word dropped he;ie .re is 
there ; it may take root, you no not know. Help <7ou extra 



it can't do harm. God takes care of the reward. Fill 
the mind with good things; let the hand do the duties 
it finds near, and you will get no time for the bad, or 
take any pleasure in it either. When tempted to do 
wrong, stop for just one minute and think: 

"One life, and only one, have we, 

One, only one. 
How sacred should that one life ever be. 
Day after day filled up with blessed toil, 

Hour after hour bring in new spoil." 


"Home and home life must never become commonplace. The 
little surprises, the remembrance of the birthday, the unexpected 
treat, the pleasure earned for one by the sacrifice of another — all 
these belong under our head of spiritual exercises. Nor is there 
any scene of our life which so demands such exercise as this 
familiar scene of home, which has to be reset every day." — Ed- 
ward Everett Hale. 

"All that I am, my mother made me." 

— John Adams. 




The dining room should be the most attractive and 
pleasant room in . the house — the kitchen is the most 

Weed out what is not needed in both places and ar- 
range what is needed in the most attractive systematic 
and practical way possible. 

If the dining room must be used for sewing, etc., then 
a pretty screen can be made to match the room in color 
and hide unsightly things as the sewing machine, bundles, 
ironing board, etc. Pockets, pincushions, etc., may be 
hung on back of screen. 

It oftentimes has to serve the purpose of living room 
and music room. In this case, sensibly made and pretty 
screens are a great help, not only to beautify but to be 
useful, for instance, to put around the piano to protect 
it while airing the house or a two panel one will pro- 
tect it from the direct rays of heat from stove or sun. 
One of white protects the baby while bathing; also nice 
for the sick bed. 

The glassware, silver and the nicer dishes can be care- 
fully washed on a side table, saving many steps for the 
weary housewife. 

A small rinsing and draining pan can be kept hung 
behind a small screen. The suds for washing can be 
brought in from the kitchen in dishpan and carried back, 
or three pans may be kept behind the screens, one for 
washing, one for rinsing and one for draining, and also 
a baking powder can or any dish not very roomy can 
be hung back of the screen for soap. Then enough ho^.i 
water can be brought in, in a medium sized pail to do f. 'iid 
both sudsing and rinsing and poured back into the -re is 
to wash the cooking dishes in, in the kitchen thou extra 
one has to keep a meal waiting which should not ^ 



only in case of absolute necessity, it is often economy to 
wash the cooking dishes while waiting. 

Either method will only require one trip to the kitchen 
for the process of washing. If the side table is a nicely 
finished one, squares of wood may be kept behind the 
screen to protect table from the hot pans. Newspaper 
is not sufficient protection. This method is meant for the 
older fashioned houses. The later houses are arranged 
so that it is easier to carry the dishes to the kitchen, 

A tray or better a sort of tray basket with a handle 
saves many steps. Dishwashing can be made a very 
clean work or sloppy. One can so train themselves so 
as not to splash a drop of water, thereby saving the labor 
of so much cleaning and valuable time that can be used 
for restfulness, reading or studying. 

In putting away things from the table after meals, all 
sticky or greasy things as the syrup pitcher, should be 
wiped off with a clean, damp cloth. This not only keeps 
the pantry neat and clean but makes the table attractive 
and appetizing when set for the next meal. This method 
also saves the tablecloth. 

With aid of one or two screens and perhaps a curtain 
or two for some doors, paying considerable attention to 
coloring, using only one color or a combination of well 
blended colors, the dining room is easy to make simple 
and pretty ; the simpler the prettier. 

The inside door or doors can be removed, especially 
where one is crowded and needs room. It adds much 
to the roominess. 

On very hot days the house should be darkened about 
9 a. m. and opened about 5 p. m. ; other days it is better 
*;o lay newspapers on the rugs and let in the sun and 
'l\ this saves fading both cheeks and rugs, 
t . 'he door between dining room and kitchen should al- 
bA be closed to keep out heat, steam, gas, etc. 
anici^ Dr that swings both ways is nice. 


Where room is scare then it should be heavily cur- 
tained, white cotton flannel or sheeting on the kitchen 
side and any material to match the dining room on the 
other side — this means a double curtain, one on each side 
of the door. 

Where one has to get along with one or two rooms, 
the method given for washing, is a very good one, as it 
steams the house but very little if carefully done; steam 
is very bad for baby, children or one's self. 

Always leave a window slightly opened for the escape 
of steam and let in dry air; the colder the air the drier. 
This method is good even if the house has a ventilator 
and an escape pipe or other means for the escape of 
foul air. 

Some houses are made with good methods of getting 
in fresh air, but no escape for the foul. 

The law proving the fault of this is that two bodies 
cannot occupy the same space at the same time. 

In arranging the kitchen, use every inch of wall that 
can be made use of conveniently to save steps, and all 
the light that space will allow, at least two windows, 
three are better. 

In buying furnishings, especially for the kitchen, notice 
whether they are easily kept clean. Avoid cooking dishes 
especially with rims and handles full of crevices and 
grooves to catch dirt — some must necessarily be com- 

There are so many unsanitary and impractical things 
on the market which will be done away with in time and 
things more practical take their place as people demand. 

Tin tobacco pails make good cooking dishes till one 
can afford to buy those of good material. They can be 
kept very bright with ashes and must be well ^calde^'i 
One can even make a double boiler of them by haviid 
different sizes and dropping two or three pebbles ire is 
bottom. Also a steamer by driving a nail here an extra 


to make holes. Also an ice cream freezer. Make 
cozies to fit, being careful not to get cozies too close 
to the fire. These cozies are very good fuel savers. 
They need not be washed very often, but set outdoors 
on a little line to dry and air ; two or three of them will 
last a year or more and should have their place in the 
kitchen as well as any other necessity for good cook- 
ing. Such cooking dishes with a good spider, will last 
until one can begin to buy good utensils. The heavier 
your spider and the heavier one or two kettles are for 
slow cooking, the more scientific the cooking, always 
remembering that scientific cooking means health and 
happiness and a fatter purse. If one can afford to 
have only oatmeal for breakfast, let it be cooked right. 

Though the late three or four piece steam cooker is 
hard to take care of, it is well worth the trouble and 
well worth the most excellent care of sudsing, rinsing 
and thoroughly drying, before putting in its place. For 
with only a partial knowledge of the most used and 
cheapest combinations of foods, it will cook them scien- 
tifically and the food is delicious. Little pamphlets or 
cook books come with them, or if absent,, one can se- 
cure it through your dealer or write to the company, 
whose name is usually on the cooker. These little cook 
books, if carefully studied, will give you all the knowl- 
edge you may need to use, concerning the dish. 

The fireless cooker is another very practical and great 
aid in scientific cooking. The U. S. Army has learned 
their great value and is installing them for use. Little 
books go with them, teaching one how to use them. It 
would be well to heat the cooker with a little covered pail 
of boiling water set in it about fifteen or twenty minutes 
■'before the food is prepared for it. 

t . I have seen some make tea and coffee with baking 
bA'-'der cans, which is all right when the cans are prop- 
anici^ jred for. Both baking powder and cocoa cans are 


excellent for steamed puddings, fish loaves, meat loaves 
and brown bread. They will last five or six years if 
thoroughly cleaned and dried before putting away. 

A little lattice frame outside the window or on the 
porch, is an excellent way of sunning and drying tins. 
All cooking dishes should be thoroughly rinsed or cook- 
ing will taste of the soap, and the dishcloth used for 
wiping them should be rung out of clear water and not 
the suds as so many do. Towels can be used for tin 
and granite. 

A swab made for greasing molds, griddles and so on, 
can be made of a little stick notched near the end, and 
a clean white rag tied on, which should be changed often. 
This can be kept in a rounding bowl or thick white cup, 
which can be set in warm water or on back of range to 
melt the grease for use. One should keep two bowls 
or cups for this purpose, that is to save some of the 
dripping for greasing and two little jars to save it for 
cooking, so that a fresh one of each can be started each 
week (oftener in summer time and less in wixiter time), 
and the dripping won't get rancid. Always finish the 
old one and don't pour it into the new. Nearly all drip- 
ping can be saved except that of corned beef; even this 
of a very fine grade can be used. Chicken fat, using 
about half butter, is good for cooking. I have ,not ex- 
perimented nor studied the fats of other fowls, except 
goose fat is excellent for medicinal purposes, making 
salves of medicated oil. 

I will not give a list of cooking dishes as they are men- 
tioned throughout with the recipes, but in addition to 
cooking utensils, every kitchen should have a scrap box 
or basket for burnable material, a covered pail, which 
should be cleaned every day, for wet garbage, using this 
for fertilizer if one has a garden by digging holes and 
covering, or what can't be burned; a white granite is 
none too good and a farm house should have one extra 


for clean slops, as potato skins and other eatable things. 
Never feed a pig or cow anything which you would not 
cat, or rather taste of yourself, or out of a pail that you 
would not drink. This will help prevent cholera and 
other diseases among animals — "an ounce of prevention 
is worth a pound of cure." In addition to these two, a 
rack or shelf for old papers, a scissors and pin cushion 
(substitute a wide piece of ribbon tacked at both ends). 

One needs at least two tables in the kitchen. One of 
the old fashioned wash stands with one drawer, with 
the little board on the back removed, covered neatly with 
asbestos paper and zinc, is fine for hot kettles which 
should never be set on the floor. The drawer can be 
used for cooking knives, forks and spoons and a hang- 
mg shelf may be arranged above it for keeping the most 
used seasoning things — sugar and salt being kept in those 
old fashioned white and blue covered jars. They seem 
to be coming back into use again. On the ends of this 
little shelf, hooks or shingle nails may be put for hanging 
the most used things, as toasting fork. Another thing 
which ought to be brought back into use is the little bowl 
shaped iron kettle our grandmothers fried doughnuts in. 
When once heated, they keep their temperature and the 
gas can be turned out some minutes before finishing. 
They save grease and can be used for many things be- 
sides doughnuts. I hope a little, heavy iron spider will 
be put on the market, for browning onions and things 
for flavoring, which adds so much to most dishes. For 
the farmer's busy wife, a one-burner gasoline or blue 
flame kerosene stove is a great saving of labor for long 
simmering. The burners should be plunged in hot suds 
occasionally to avoid odor. On ironing day, an asbestos 
mat can be placed under a simmering kettle when fire 
is too hot; the more irons you have the less fuel is 
needed, requiring only a little better than a slow fire. 

Place the ice box where it will be cool. If it must be 


kept in the kitchen, screen it from the heat. If the cellar 
stairs are wide, a shelf or support can be made to place 
a small ice box on, in a handy place. The storeroom or 
pantry should be well curtained to keep out the kitchen 
heat. Flour sacks are very good for curtains if washed, 
bleached and neatly made. One can buy them at the 
bakery for a cent or two a piece, very dirty, but soaking 
and several rinsings before washing, pays for their un- 
numbered uses. One thrifty housekeeper I knew, made 
dresser and wash stand covers and even lunch cloths, by 
making a rather wide hem and starching them. 

All bedroom furniture should have two sets of covers, 
so that one set can be changed when cleaning. Some 
little convenient shelf or contrivance with a railing for 
all kinds of covers of kettles can be placed near the range 
— saves lots of time and "back-breaking" hunting for 

The old-fashioned abominable sink ! If you can't af- 
ford a carpenter, go at it day by day till the sides are all 
removed, then hold up with two iron brackets or wooden 
ones made by a carpenter, or one bracket is sufficient if 
one end of sink is near a wall. After having the car- 
penter work done, paint the outside any color that always 
looks clean. A thin coat of varnish over the paint will 
make it last for years. An all-white kitchen or a very 
pale blue is cheery as well as clean. The nearer the sink 
is to the stove, the better ; also one table. Drop shelves 
make good kitchen tables. 

Then over the sink, place a shelf or some handy con- 
trivance so that a small whisk brook and a toy dust pan 
can be hung so they will drip into the sink ; also a dipper 
and wash basin. A whisk broom will last four or five 
years if it is hung up by a ring at end of handle every 
time it is used. The newspapers should be placed near 
the sink so that the dirty dirt can be put on one and 
burned and clean garbage can be lightly picked up with 


those two little tools and if on a farm, saved -for pigs 
and chickens — in small cities some men will call for those 
things for different uses, while there is a certain amount 
which must be taken by the garbage man. Where one 
has no range, dry garbage can be burned out of doors 
and the ashes neatly swept up and put in garbage pail, 
or if one has a little garden patch burn in a little hollow 
and rake dirt over the ashes, which act as a fertilizer. 

Never allow a dish cloth to become foul smelling. Al- 
ways hang out to dry when through with, giving it a 
good scalding occasionally; or better still, have six or 
eight and wash with the weekly wash. Save dish cloths 
by using rags from the scrap bag or box for the blackest 
things and for scouring. The sink and other drains 
should be scalded with strong, hot lye suds or other good 
strong suds ; lye alone is very effective, but let it stand 
for a while without running water through. 

If the sink is old-fashioned, the woodwork can be pro- 
tected by the use of white oil cloth tacked just above it, 
bring it down over the edge so that all water splashed, 
will drip into the sink and not on the woodwork. Let 
everything in the kitchen have its proper place and keep 
everything in that place. This is a nerve saving method 
and a promoter of health. 

The selection of a range, whether gas or coal, should 
be careful, plain, practical and easy to take care of. If 
a gas range, get one that requires the least stooping; 
if a coal range, see that the floor is protected against 
ashes and coals falling when the ash pan is removed. 
It is well to get one that the fire box can be raked out 
from underneath by means of a door in the front. Many 
of the steel ranges lack this. No matter what kind of a 
gasoline or kerosene stove is used, the burners should be 
well cleaned with hot suds. Most burners can be re- 
moved and put into the suds. Tooth picks and matches 
aid in keeping them open. 




The secret of drying clothes in winter is to get them 
on the line as early in the morning as possible, and the 
earlier they are hung in the summer time, the whiter 
and cleaner looking they'll be, as the atmosphere has 
cleaner and better drying properties then than any other 
part of the day. Putting on the line quite wet at night 
in the summer time and let hang all night will often re- 
move stains and whiten them. 

The secret of washing flannels is not to put them in 
either too hot or too cold water. If ironed, which a few 
need, as outside flannel waists, etc., have the iron hot, 
but not quite as hot as for starch clothes, and iron on 
the wrong side, where there is no lining, otherwise fancy 
things look better if pressed under damp cheese cloth. 
This gives them a new appearance while the direct iron 
upon them, makes them look shiny. 

Before starting to wash them, have three tubs or pans, 
two containing suds and one rinsing water, all of nearly 
the same temperature which is a good luke warm. The 
rinsing water need not necessarily be warm; it may be 
softened with borax or ammonia. Either ivory soap or 
wool soap sliced into a kettle and melted on back of 
range to make the suds, putting half in each tub, is best 
for wools. The common laundry soap shrinks them. 
Slush through the first suds with little machine, say about 
four minutes, without rubbing soap on them, except a 
little Fels Naptha on the stains and grease spots, if any. 
Wring with the wringer into the second suds, slush a 
little more, turn wrong side out and wring into the rins- 


ing water. Rinse well and wring with the wringer 
screwed rather tight. The tighter they are wrung the 
cleaner they look. Shake well and if the thermometer is 
below freezing point they should be hung in the house, 
though one should avoid doing this as much as possible 
by picking out a day that they can be hung out at least 
for an hour or so before hanging in the house. Even 
if dried in the house, they should be hung out before or 
after drying. Avoid freezing if possible. Any clothes 
dry faster in the house if first hung out of doors an hour 
or two of the day. If a piece happens to be very dirty, 
as baby's play coat, a little of the suds can be put in a 
pail or dish pan for third sudsing. 

Flannels are expensive and it pays to be a little fussy 
with them. If cared for in this way, they will last two 
or three seasons, according to one's occupation. 

Some of the heavy dress goods, as serge, can be washed 
in this way, without injury. Cravenette coats wash very 
nicely, also black broadcloth ; the broadcloth will shrink 
a little. 

Never hang any kind of clothes in the very hot sun; 
hence early morning is best. The shade is best, if hung 
out at noon in warm summer. Always loosen the roll- 
ers on a clothes wringer before putting away. 


Soak clothes about fifteen minutes in cold water. Add 
a good kettle of hot suds made with Lenox or some good 
soap. Slush about three or four minutes. Rub real 
soiled spots with Fels Naptha. Wring into second tub 
and pour over them real hot, but not boiling, suds made 
with Galvanic soap (about a bar to a tub of clothes). 
Slush about a minute to distribute suds evenly througii 
clothes. Then cover and let stand fifteen to thirty min- 
utes — depends on how dirty ; then slush well for four or 
five minutes. Add more water if it is necessary so they 


will slush easily. Rinse twice, though the first pieces 
will do with one rinsing, but as the water gets sudsy, 
the last need another rinsing; they should be rinsed and 
shook well, which makes them iron easier. Where the 
bath tub can be used for rinsing, the clothes can be just 
lifted from the hot suds without wringing, into a small 
tub or large pan of cold water, then wrung lightly from 
that into the rinsing water, one can save lots of suds in 
this way and this suds is very nice for the first washing 
of colored or very dirty pieces. 

Ammonia, or borax, can be added to the rinsing water 
when one can't get soft water. This is an excellent 
method and does not rot or wear the clothes. No rub- 
bing to speak of, no boiling and no "dead" fatigue when 
done. Where it is necessary to boil, keep doors leading 
to other part of the house closed, to keep out dampness 
and a window open will let out the vapor and keep the 
kitchen or laundry drier and healthier. 

It is better for the hands and better for the clothes, 
to rinse in warm water. If the day is stormy, they can 
stand all night either in the galvanic suds or the rinsing 
water. In the morning, add a kettle of hot water and 
pounce with the machine a little. 

Oftentimes stains will not come out on the wash- 
board, as feet of socks, etc., which will come out by 
rubbing the goods in single thickness between the 
hands, with plenty of Fels Naptha. 


Cold Starch is simply made with about a teaspoonful 
of starch and half a cup of luke warm water ; add a little 
borax. Dip the parts to be starched and fold in cloth 
for an hour or so before ironing. 

Boiled — Blend starch in a bowl with a little borax and 
cold water ; stir into boiling water as blending flour into 


gravy and when it comes to a boil, remove. This method 
never fails. 

When there are a number of things to starch, put in 
tub and put through wringer. Never let clothes freeze 
after starching. On cold days, things to be starched 
should be hung out with the rest of clothes and starched 
after they are brought in. Shaking of clothes is half of 
the ironing done. 

Dampen over night is best as the dampness has time 
to even, owing to the law of capillary attraction, and they 
iron easier. Wools need only be wrapped in very damp 
cloths or towels as they absorb moisture very readily. 

Not necessary to dampen sheets and pillow cases, 
baby's napkins, everyday towels, etc., as it only takes a 
few minutes to run the iron over them and fold while 
one is dampening the clothes. They may be sort of 
folded with iron so they can be put away, as these things 
are really better not ironed. 

A damp towel thrown over basket or wrapped around 
starch clothes, helps to make the dampness even. The 
tighter rolled the more even dampness, though not nec- 
essary to roll so tight if they stand all night. If too 
damp, they iron stiff instead of soft. 

Ribbons should be real damp and if ironed with a 
moderate iron will keep their new look for a long time. 

As the hands are usually sore and tender after wash- 
ing, a small whisk broom is very nice for sprinkling or 
a very small sprinkling can, either sprinkles more 
evenly than the hand. 


A table about as large as an ordinary kitchen table. 

A large dipper or medium sized, clean, granite kettle 
used as such. 

A gravy strainer to strain the melted soap with if in 
a hurry with a few pieces and can't wait for it all to 


melt. Cheese cloth or towel is better for straining 

A little slusher washing machine which resembles an 
inverted funnel, with a handle on it. An old broom 
handle is fine for those little machines. These little ma- 
chines are excellent for rinsing as they take all the suds 
out of the clothes. 

A clothes wringer with or without folding bench, with 
the widest rollers that can be bought at a reasonable cost, 
which is eleven inches. There are wider ones, fourteen 
inches, but the price is beyond most people's purse, being 
about fourteen to sixteen dollars. The wider the better 
for bed pads, blankets, rugs, etc, which can be wrung 
more easily. 

Especially valuable on a farm where there are so many 
horse blankets and blankets to cover milk, overalls, etc. 

Two tubs will do, but three are more convenient. 

A wash bench where the wringer has not a folding 
bench, and an old chair. 

A large pail and a dish pan. 

A wash board, three ironing boards — one large, six 
and one-half feet by fourteen inches, which is fine for 
the large pieces, one small one and a sleeve board 
which can be used to take the place of the small board. 
The small board is handy when sewing and when iron- 
ing baby's dresses, etc. 

A little cupboard made of a box, to keep laundry things 
in, such as borax, ammonia, etc. 

A small scrubbing or hand brush to scrub the most 
soiled parts of overalls or greasy spots on heavy pieces. 

A tiny wash board and little brush are nice for the 
everyday washing of baby's napkins. 

A bottle of ammonia (Household) ; also a small bottle 
of the spirits of ammonia (Hartshorn). 

Very heavy rugs can be rinsed with the little 
slusher machine in a tub of water out of doors, and hung 


in a shady place, or all night to drain without wringing ; 
when well drained they can be pinned on line. They 
should first -be scrubbed with good suds on the floor, 
either using broom or scrubbing brush, or across the 
board on a tub. If done on the floor, use plenty of news- 
papers so as not to injure varnish or linoleum. This 
means cheap rugs used for kitchen, bathroom, cellar- 
way, etc. 


These will not do good work unless scoured occa- 
sionally with ashes or sapolio and rubbed often with 
kerosene. It is good for both irons and clothes to not 
put the irons directly on the gas and use the gas as low 
as will do good work. Most all hardwares have excellent 
gas savers. 


Soap sets ink and other acid stains. 

For ink stains, the process of removal must be re- 
peated again and again. Ink should be removed while 
wet, by dipping in pure spirits of ammonia and rinsing. 
Repeat till finished. If the ink has become dry, satur- 
ate with lemon juice or vinegar and rub salt in, changing 
clothes and salt very often ; hang in the sun and keep 
moist by repeating hourly this treatment. At night soak 
in clear, soft water. Next day wash in the usual way, 
adding a little kerosene to the suds. Repeated doses of 
sweet milk is also good. A rug ink stain will yield to 
repeated doses of vinegar, rubbing out with dry salt. 

Iron rust requires the same treatment. 

Javelle water and oxalic acid will draw out the color 
and weaken the goods if not rinsed quickly and carefully 
after using. It is more harmful than the more simple 

Sweet or sour milk, or buttermilk, fresh, will remove 


ink stains if the milk is changed about every fifteen to 
thirty minutes. It takes two to three hours, the milk 
being only a little colored each time. 

Cream of tartar rubbed in with hot water and repeated 
in the sun, as with lemon juice and salt, is also a good 
remedy but rather slow. After repeating, run a stream 
of boiling water through and repeat. If not removed 
first day, soak all night in clear water and repeat second 

An ink stain on a rug can be removed by sponging well 
with skimmed milk, using only one cup at a time, and 
changing the milk as soon as discolored. When the milk 
does not darken any more, then rinse with clear, warm 
water and cover with corn starch, let stand for a day or 
two till it can be brushed off dry. Benzine is good. 

Stir about a teaspoonful of cream of tartar into a 
quart or more of water and boil rusty white things in 
it, and the rust will disappear. Repeat the process if 

Coffee, tea and fruit stains can be removed very quick- 
ly by stretching the garment" over a basin or tub and 
pouring boiling water through it. If the stain does not 
yield to this, then the lemon juice treatment will remove 
it. Sometimes borax water used as the lemon juice and 
salt is very effective. 


For the pants follow the rules for flannels. Coat and 
vest can be sponged, but not dipped, in two or three 
clean suds and two or three warm rinsing waters with 
ammonia. Let hang outdoors in shade till about half 
dry, have ready a roll of five or six pieces of cheese cloth 
which have been dampened the night before. Press the 
suit under these, but never put the iron directly on them. 
The padded part of coat sleeves can be pressed with a 
rolling pin or sleeve board. They will look like new. 


Use heavy irons and considerable strength. They must 
be first brushed well, turning the pockets. The pants 
should be creased down the front — just put a little extra 
dampness on cheese cloth at the crease. 

To press pants not washed, first brush, turning wrong 
side out. Take the bag out of the knees by pressing a 
little on the wrong side, then turn right side out and pro- 
ceed, putting seams together and pressing the inner side 
of legs first. Put legs together and give the outside of 
legs just a little pressing. Hang upside down in just 
this shape. If always so hung they will keep this shape 
for almost six months where one is careful of their 


Follow the rules for flannels, only use three suds if 
necessary, and some add a tablespoonful or so of tur- 
pentine also a little borax or ammonia, or both, to the 
rinsing water. 


Turpentine and salt will sometimes set colors before 
washing new figured dress goods. Let soak one-half to 
one hour. 


Rinse two or three times in cold water and proceed as 
with regular washing. Hang out, when dry, bring in, 
starch and stretch. 

Four will dry in about a half to one hour. If in haste 
they £an be washed and put back on window in one hour. 


Take four or five little poles, say about three-fourths 
inch in diameter and six and one-half or seven feet long, 
and arrange side by side about six inches apart ; fasten 


both ends of each one, into an inch board, about two 
inches wide and two feet long. This makes a frame 
having as much room for clothes as any common clothes 
bars. Then attach to the ceiling, by means of pulleys 
and hooks, as near to the stove as possible, having one 
pulley near a door or window, so that the rope can be 
brought over it and tied on a hook below or at any con- 
venient-height to handle. The bars can be raised or low- 
ered by means of this rope. 

The law of heat is that it rises above the cold air, so 
the higher the clothes, the faster they dry; they are also 
up out of the way. It works on the same principle as a 
hay fork, only it needs more pulleys to balance. 


PJnsing in warm or even very hot water and let stand 
a few minutes, will whiten clothes. Wringing real tight 
also tends to whiten. 

A wringer is best for flannels or any nice piece as the 
hands pull them out of shape more or less. 


Tack or pin a large pocket of white goods doubled at 
the wide end of the ironing board, to keep stand, holder, 
wax and cleaning rags in. It is well to keep the wax 
tied in a corner of a rag. Ends of paraffin candles are 
nice to clean irons. 

The ironing board can be placed on two strong hooks 
or pegs about three inches from the floor. It is better 
for the board and saves moving it when wiping up 
floor. Floor dust is hard on anything. 

If starch should get lumpy, strain. 

To save gas on ironing, don't fold clothes till you are 
through. Turn gas low and go to rest fifteen or twenty 
minutes; when you come back irons will be hot. Save 
self as well as gas. 



To hang little things out in winter, pin with new pins 
onto towels before going out ; this saves the hands and 
the hard work of getting them off the line after freez- 
ing. Short lines may be taken down carefully and the 
clothes taken off after being brought in in freezing 
weather. Save both hands and clothes. Thick cotton 
flannel makes good mittens for hanging clothes. Two 
or three pairs are none too much ; they are easily 
washed and kept clean. 

Clothes line can be washed in hot suds, put in a cheese 
cloth bag, and hang on the line to dry. If kept in a 
clean bag it need not be washed more than once or twice 
a year. 

If lace curtains must be pinned on the floor, they can 
be dried quickly by using a hot iron. 

Use quilting frame with sheet for stretching. 



Rule for methods — "search and you will find," perse- 
vere and you will conquer. Go after pests as a hunter 
goes after his game. 

Flies — "What is home by flies infested ; 'tis a torture 
place congested." To get rid of these is not much trouble 
if carefully managed and made easy to attend to. One 
housekeeper darkens the kitchen and living room about 
four o'clock p. m., which is their hungry time. One ray 
of sunshine is allowed to shine on a plate spread with 
poisoned paper and sweetened water (set on newspaper 
spread out to hold the dead flies) ; this is very effective 
if paper is doubled or tripled. Every fly indoors finds 
this tempting dish (especially a day before a storm when 
they are so stingy), and in a short time the house is 
cleared of flies for that day. The fresher the paper the 
better-; change at least every third day. 

The brown fly paper to be moistened is the best remedy 
of all if properly used. All that remains when evening 
comes can be killed in a few moments with a little fly 

Plates of well moistened doubled or tripled fly paper 
placed outside the kitchen door set on shelves above 
head level, or boxes opening out, that is the bottom 
tacked to side of house. It should be moistened two 
or three times a day in hot weather and changed and 
cleaned every other day. The open boxes are better 
than the shelves as they protect the paper from the 
sun. The dead flies can be brushed up two or three 
times a day, rolled in a piece of newspaper securely 
and put in kitchen waste basket to be burned. 


Where there is a porch, part of it should be screened, 
as flies will gather under the roof. Some tack strips of 
paper to the screen door, but this is not very effective, 
except on windy days. Wipe the screen off with kero- 

Another method is to place saucers of cold water with 
a pinch of quasia chips in it, in every window. This only 
needs changing twice a week. It is clean, non-poisonous, 
and costs but little. Quasia cups can be bought at a 
druggist's for a few cents apiece. One is probably 
enough for a season, chipping it as needed. Two tea- 
spoonfuls of formaldehyde in one pint of water placed 
on plates or saucers is also very good. 

Another method used by a thrifty housekeeper, 
which is very good where there is much running in 
and out of doors. Lay doubled or tripled fly paper 
moistened well in sweetened water, on both middle 
and lower part of windows, on a double layer of good 
quality of paraffin paper, to protect paint or varnish. 
The paraffln paper can be sort of bent up to form a 
little pan. Wet two or three times a day as required, 
best late at night so flies will get it early in the morn- 
ing. This is an excellent method, as at night scarcely 
a fly will be seen on the ceiling. They are easily 
brushed on a dust pan with a quill or whisk broom. 
The windows get soiled soon, but it is easier to wipg 
those with a damp cloth than to be tormented with 
the dirty pests. 

It is worse than useless to brush them or chase them 
out of the house, as the next day the same are back 
again with a few more, and the day after more still, 
till the house is soon a fly cage. The fly cage helps a 
little. Every little helps. At a picnic the tablecloth 
can be sprayed with a little water in which is some oil 
of lavender. 

When we consider that flies only move about three 
or four hundred yards from where they breed, it is an 


easy matter to get rid of them if yards are kept clean 
and everyone does their part towards killing them; 
and if true that they breed only in horse manure, why 
not disinfect the stable once or twice a week and not 
have any at all, as in the city of Paris, Flies are a dis- 
grace to any house or community. In the autumn 
when they are so bad, they should be swept down from 
the porches on cold mornings and burned. This can 
be done oftentimes in September. Burn pyrethum 
powder in the house. It will kill most of the flies, and 
those it does not, will fall stunned, when they may be 
swept up and burned. A mignonette plant kept in 
the room is also an enemy to the flies — a drop of oil 
of lavender in a bowl of water helps also. 

Sticky fly paper is a second rate destroyer. It will 
kill almost four times as many flies if bent over a cup 
or rolled and the edges trimmed ofif. It can now be 
bought with a sort of little pasteboard pan for rolling. 
It should be kept in a cool, dry place, and should not 
stand longer than two days in use unless weather is 
cool. Little boards of convenient size can be kept to 
tack it on to keep it from blowing onto things and do 
damage. Tack newspaper with it. If it does get on 
anything, kerosene will remove it easily. 

Make a frame and cover with wire or mosquito net- 
ting to put over the baby when sleeping out of doors. 
This should be washed often and kept very clean so 
that baby will have clean, fresh air. 

The little hand fly killers will soon finish all that any 
of the foregoing rules don't; especially valuable in the 
sick room. A folded paper makes a fair fly killer. Let 
everybody join hands and get rid of the flies and 
thereby help all the good associations to get rid of 
tuberculosis, typhoid, etc. Use all the methods com- 
bined. Get rid of them! "A fly killed in April is worth a 
million in July." 

Mosquitoes. In the South a layer of pebbles is 


placed in the bottom of several medium sized flower 
pots. Pieces of moistened blotting paper liberally- 
sprinkled with pyrethum powder are dropped on top 
of the pebbles and lighted. The result will be a smould- 
ering flame. These may be placed out doors wherever 
you wish to sit, or it will be an easy matter to clear a 
room of mosquitoes in a short time, with the fumes 
from the flower pot. 

A smudge of this kind does not make any dirt and 
the mosquitoes are soon overcome with the fumes. 

The castor oil plant is grown upon some lawns. 
When retiring, take a leaf and bruise it so as to bring 
out the odor. Wave it a minute or so to fill the air 
with it, when the mosquitoes will soon disappear. If 
only a few in the house, slap with a paper and burn. 


There are several remedies for ants, 

1. To keep them off the porches, swab the under 
part with kerosene or oil of sassafras. 

2. Place a spoonful or so of paragoric in a saucer 
on the shelf. 

3. Mix plaster of paris and sugar among dry gro- 

4. Put bruised tansy leaves on the shelf. Keep 
some in a fruit jar on purpose for them. 

5. Dash red pepper here and there. 

6. Put one-fourth teaspoonful of sugar in a heap in 
icebox or on shelf and when they gather, throw about 
a half cup or less of boiling water on them; wipe up 
quickly with a rag and burn. Repeat the next day or 
perhaps the third day. They won't bother much more. 

Follow them to their nests out of doors and put kero- 
sene on their nests. 

Fleas. — If the poor house dog or cat is afflicted, get 
a good flea soap from the druggist and use it for his 


bath with good warm water and plenty of room to 
souse him good, being careful of his eyes. A foot 
bathtub does very well if animal is not too large. 

If this does not finish the fleas, after a few days of 
treatment, then resort to a careful use of kerosene, 
being careful not to blister, as their coats are rather 
thick. Rub carefully over the top of the fur. They 
should be kept out of doors as much as possible. 

If they should get on the sheets, roll the sheet up 
carefully and stick into hot water, as it is almost im- 
possible to catch them. If very bad, use plenty of 
green pennyroyal, especially on floors, and let stand 
till it begins to dry, then gather up and burn. Then 
wipe up floors and closets with warm water in which 
is a little oil of pennyroyal. Put plenty of sticky fly 
paper under the beds, dressers, etc. 

Lice. — Another pest the housemother must watch 
for in the children. Three daily treatments of kero- 
sene, fine comb and newspapers ( to prevent them from 
getting on anything else), will silence one's worry on 
that point. Do not bandage the head or the kerosene 
will blister. Kerosene is good for the hair. 

Another method — Rub on tincture of quasia on the 
scalp and tie towel on at night. In the morning the 
towel only needs attention. Take off with care and 
put into a bowl of hot water. 

Bed Bugs. — Handle bed bugs as you would cut glass 
as it is easy to carry them from room to room. Gaso- 
line will not injure your beds; put on plenty, shut the 
doors and windows and get out of the room. Let 
stand as long as you can and go back, open up and 
brush onto newspaper any that you may find, and 
burn. Repeat this treatment once or twice if neces- 
sary, about a week apart. 

The careful use of a good poison with a little oil can 
which penetrates all the crevices and pesky places and 


the inside of loose mop-boards or cracks in the wall, 
will banish them if used once or twice a week till the 
last trace disappears, and it is well to use it once or 
twice a year, if none are seen. It is not necessary to 
ruin varnish or mattresses. And before papering or 
morescoing a wall, dose the cracks and holes, for if 
eggs are there, they will work out through either paper 
or moresco. 

Moths — Drop little cotton balls with a few drops 
of oil of cedar here and there, into closets, boxes, 
rooms, drawers, and any place they might be found. 

Rats and Mice — The poisoning of these is not a 
good thing as they die in the house. The best is to 
smoke or scald the traps. Tie on the bait, cover with 
a cloth loosely and keep up banishing them. Where 
there are a great number, use the wire cage for rats. 
Keep food under lock and key and they will go for the 
bait. The work gets monotonous, but they are so de- 
structive and annoying that it pays to keep at it every 
few weeks. 

Cockroaches — Keep sink and all drains well scalded. 
Some sprinkle borax around where they may be. A 
dry, well lighted house and cellar is seldom troubled 
with these. Some druggists prepare a powder to ban- 
ish them. 



"Cleanliness is next to Godliness" 

To remedy damp salt so that it will shake from the 
shaker, warm in the oven, or mix it well with a little 
flour or corn starch. An inverted tumbler over the 
salt cellar will keep it from getting damp. Roll after 
drying in the oven. 

Newspapers are invaluable in the kitchen. A rack 
or shelf should be kept on purpose for them, and if 
folded separately when placed on the rack, are more 
convenient when needed in a hurry. Great dirt and 
labor savers, also for warmth and coolness. 

The clean papers from groceries can also be folded 
and placed with them. They are very nice to wrap 
bricks in to warm a bed, and other purposes. The 
newspapers, no matter how clean, will color the sheets. 

Bricks warmed in the oyen, are better than flatirons 
or stove covers. They have no ill effect on the body, 
while iron has. 

A few of the uses of newspapers : — ^To clean fowls on ; 
peel onions on them and roll up and burn the skins; 
to roll the dirtiest dirt from the sink in or any dirty 
rags, and burn ; to lay upon the kitchen table to clean 
and polish kettles, spiders, lamps, and so forth, on ; 
to wrap coal in and put in the stove where there is a 
sick person, (prevents noise) ; to wipe off the top of 
the stove, though an old stocking just touched with 
kerosene keeps a range in excellent condition and 
does away with a great part of the miserable process 
of stove blackening which should be used just as little 
as possible and as sparingly as possible ; to handle soft 


coal with to save the hands ; to wipe hairs and threads 
from the broom onto another paper or into waste 
basket while sweeping, and catch the "puff" balls; to 
lay the dirt on while cleaning, which can be rolled up 
and quickly put in stove without smoking the house 
or making unnecessary dust, of which there will be 
plenty without making extra; to save furniture when 
it is necessary to set anything on it, though not suffi- 
cient protection for hot things unless very thick, as an 
old magazine; old magazines are nice to use for hot 
flatirons when ironing; to lay over the back of var- 
nished chairs when it is necessary to hang an ironed 
piece on it, as a shirt waist; to change or lay dirty 
shoes or clothes on when a man comes in from the 
barn or factory, thereby saving both floors and hard 
labor; to wrap comforters and blankets in to protect 
from dust where one has not enough drawers, shirt 
waist boxes, etc. ; better dust proof if tied up neatly. 
Wrap with wool things, a few cotton balls with a few 
drops of oil of cedar in little paper bags, which protects 
them from moths when stored away in summer. White 
things should have a layer of white paper first, as the 
ink might color them. Wrapped over a tender or sore 
limb or arm outside of the dressings, several thick- 
nesses are as warm as a buffalo robe for a long, cold' 
drive; to protect chest and ankles on a cold windy day; 
put upon the bed when short of bedclothes, to sleep 
with the open window; to pin around the sink and back 
of the bath tub or range where grease spatters, to pro- 
tect the wall, and where spiders or any cooking dishes 
are hung; to protect the floor where the kerosene can 
sits, better wrapped around a little board; to protect 
mattresses from rusty springs or the upper part from 
soil, though old pieces of cloth or flour bags are better 
for this purpose ; should be neatly washed and sewed 
together to fit; to use around the stove when taking 


out ashes ; to use under the mop pail ; to drain the 
broom upon, also the scrubbing brushes ; to swish a 
wet broom upon when brushing up a carpet or rug, 
the broom can be made dry enough that it will not in- 
jure or dampen the rug in the least. This method 
cleans the rug nicely if a little warm ammonia or borax 
water is used for the broom, but the water must be 
changed as soon as dirty. It is surprising how much 
dirt one finds in the pan of water. It is well to use 
two brooms, having one dry, when using this method. 

The children would enjoy making a box full of cir- 
cles and squares occasionally, to use on the dining 
room table, to put potato skins on and other things, 
thereby saving the table cloth and lots of washing for 
the busy housewife. 

Save all paraffin paper from cracker packages, etc. 
It is nice to use in putting up lunches, baking cake and 
many things. 

When making beds, never allow the bed clothes to 
touch the floor; this protects them from both dirt and 

If the upper sheet is drawn up about six or eight 
inches at the head of the bed, more than is needed, and 
then folded back over the blankets and comforters, 
which should be drawn even with the head of the bed, 
and then the spread put over that, the comforters and 
blankets can be kept for years without washing. They 
are never nice after washing. The only cleaning neces- 
sary is a good airing and brushing on the line, three 
or four times a year, on days that are a little windy, 
but no soot or dust falling, usually a day or two after 
a storm when the atmosphere is clear. 

The old fashioned method of taking off spreads at 
night, is not practical. They can be washed often and 
should be left on to protect comforters, which are not 
easily washed, and no matter how carefully , they are 


washed, are not so good. If necessary to wash them, 
follow rules for flannels. The lighter the spread the 
better. Some use seamless sheets for spreads. 

The fresh air will do abundance of cleaning and save 
so much washing, rubbing and scrubbing if -we will 
only let it. If sheets are shaken out in the air every 
two or three days, being careful not to let them touch 
the dusty window, they need not be washed more than 
once in two or three weeks, unless weather is very hot 
and dusty, when they should be changed every week, 
and every day where there is an invalid. Then re- 
move the lower sheet and make the upper one the 
lower one till changed again. Light blankets used as 
sheets should be washed as often as sheets. They 
should be pieced and made wide so as to cover the 
mattress, that is, in the form of a sheet. 

Where there is sickness it is well to keep two sets 
in use, hanging one set to air while the other is in 
use. This is even safe in contagious diseases if there 
is plenty of sun or frost, otherwise they should be 
scalded or sprinkled with a little formaldehyde rolled 
up for a while, say two or three hours or over night, 
and then hung out. This means sheets not soiled. 

Formaldehyde is one of the simplest and easiest dis- 
infectants to use. Write to your nearest "Board of 
Health" for pamphlets on disinfection. This work can 
be made easy as well as other work. 

There is no sense of pulling and tearing a house to 
pieces for disinfection. Keep it clean and dry with lots 
of air and sunshine. Sprinkle formaldehyde on towels 
here and there — close the doors and get away — after 
three hours or more open up and the house may be 
likened to the Colorado air. After brushing and sweep- 
ing up the kitchen, it only takes a moment or two to 
throw a clean, dry mop cloth, or one almost dry is bet- 
ter, on the floor, and with a broom rub it quickly all 


over the floor, turning it once or twice, and then shake 
out of doors, closing the door so the dust won't blow 
back into the kitchen. This keeps the kitchen sanitary 
and free from dust, especially when the door is opened, 
the wind will not diffuse the floor dust through the 
kitchen, and it won't be necessary to wash the floor 
more than once a week, unless there is a great deal 
being done, as canning, etc.; then every day is none 
too much unless one is real careful. 

A good thick rug in the kitchen where there is a 
great deal of walking through, will catch dust and 
particles of dirt from the shoes and prevent its being 
carried to the other rooms. There should be a change 
of rugs so that one can be washed every week or so. 
Old strips of rag carpet make nice kitchen rugs, and 
when clean, give the kitchen a cozy appearance as well 
as helping to keep the other rooms clean by catching 
the dust from shoes. The kitchen floor, if white 
maple, is much easier kept clean and sanitary if given 
a coat of varnish from time to time. It prevents the 
pores of the wood from absorbing the dirt. The floor 
should be thoroughly scrubbed with suds and wiped 
with clear water, and stand long enough to get thor- 
oughly dried before applying the varnish. Then about 
once in six weeks isi sufficient to give it a good wash- 
ing on hands and knees, other weeks a slight mopping, 
not too wet, keeps it very nice with everyday dusting. 

Strips of linoleum laid where there is a great deal 
of wear on a painted soft wood floor or varnished hard 
wood, will make it easier to clean and the paint last 
a good many years if it is done well and not too strong 
suds used in cleaning it, the same method for paint- 
ing as varnishing. Clear water can be used most of 
the time and a rubbing of oil and turpentine with a 
soft cloth occasionally, helps to both preserve and 
clean it. Must be rubbed quite dry so that one can 


walk on it immediately, the same method as for pol- 
ishing shoes, only use cloths instead of brushes, one 
little cloth to put it on and another to rub it off; 
change cloths frequently, and burn. 

A little cupboard made of a box and a pretty white 
curtain put on it, is very handy to keep all cleaning 
materials in, such as a bottle of kerosene, turpentine, 
linseed oil, silver polish, metal polish, brushes, pieces 
of flannel, and old soft, clean cloths (these had better 
be kept in small flour sack), etc. They keep cleaner 
than on a shelf, though the shelf is very handy. 

Liquid veneer is a very fine cleaner, but rather 
costly, though it is better to have a little for the piano 
or any nice pieces of furniture. Kerosene, if used with 
plenty of clean, soft cloths, is nice for varnish, espec- 
ially nice for varnished floors. A small cloth for rub- 
bing on and plenty of larger ones to wipe off. 

If woodwork is wiped with a cloth wrung out of 
clear water after washing it, and then wiped with a 
soft, dry cloth, it will retain its luster and keep clean 
longer as the shiny surface won't take up the dirt 
so readily as the rough dry. Woodwork, except the 
kitchen, need not be washed every year, simply dusted 
and when it is washed, it is well to get along with- 
out suds if possible. Sometimes a cloth dampened 
with kerosene will remove all the dirt, and oftentimes 
cold water will remove spots that other things don't 
affect; a vigorous rubbing with linseed oil will hide 
blemishes. Get along without suds, if possible, ex- 
cept in the kitchen. 

The wall paper can be nicely dusted by putting 
clean, soft cloths on the broom, for the high parts of 
room, changing very often ; for the lower parts, simply 
dust or wipe rather softly with very clean cloths. 
Paper thus cared for, not in a smoky town or city, 
will wear very nicely for ten or fifteen years. 


On cleaning day, if one carries with them a market 
basket containing a whisk broom, dust pan (metal 
crumb tray), one soft old clothes brush, and six or 
more clean dust cloths (very effective if just very 
slightly sprinkled and rolled over night) and some 
newspapers; also a fruit jar of "dust down," etc. 

As each cloth gets dusty, place in the basket and 
take a clean one. This saves going out doors to shake 
the cloth so many times, and when done, all can be 
shaken together, making only one or two trips, sav- 
ing steps and strength. A dust cloth should never be 
shaken in the house. This method makes the clean- 
ing much quicker and easier and sanitary as well. It 
is easier to get the dirt on the dust pan with the whisk 
broom than the broom. For those who cannot stoop 
easily there are now dust pans with a high handled 

Clean sawdust dampened, over night (not too damp), 
makes a good dust down as well as a fair rug cleaner, 
as the dust does not sift under the rug so much. It 
can be slightly dampened with a little ammonia water 
and borax if inclined to be mothy. Corn meal is good, 
also salt, but these are more costly than sawdust. 
Regular dust down, with directions for using, can be 
bought at most of the hardware stores. Clean, soft 
mop cloths slightly dampened over night, dust the 
floors and rugs very nicely after sweeping. Floors 
should always be dusted whether hardwood or soft. 

A mop wrung tightly out of clean, warm water, 
rubbed over a rug, will brighten and clean it; also 
keep down the dust, being careful not to get the rug 
damp, if nothing is at hand to keep down the dust. 
A box (empty breakfast food) or bag (small) of 
rather small pieces of old rags, kept near the sink, are 
fine to dip in kerosene to clean the outside of kettles, 
bathtub on both sides, sink, etc. It is not so wearing 


as sapolio and will keep things bright for years. Each 
cloth should be burned when used, or thrown in the 
kitchen scrap basket after wrapping in paper. A little 
box full or a 25-pound flour sack cut in two, will last 
two weeks. This cleans wax candles that are kept on 
the dresser or mantle. 

Gasoline is very nice, also, only be careful about ex- 
plosion. The bottle will pop open if kept in too warm 
a place, but will do no harm unless there is a light or 
blaze near. 

These old rags are nice to clean anything spilled on 
stove or floor or a "mess" of any kind. Cut into about 
8 or 12 inch squares, some larger, some smaller, before 
putting in the box for use. 

A scrap basket kept in the kitchen for things to 
burn is easier than lifting the range cover so many 
times — makes less dust and smoke. Anything with 
an odor can be rolled in newspaper, then once a day 
or once in two days, the whole contents can be rolled 
in newspapers and burned, or sometimes there will be 
fuel enough to get a luncheon or supper if carefully 
planned, and save wood, as well as not having such a 
hot kitchen. This will blacken the cooking utensils 
a little, but they can be easily wiped ofif on a news- 
paper with a little rag and kerosene. 

When the broom is wet, it should be hung down 
so that it will drain and dry quickly. It will wear 
much longer and is more sanitary. A screw-eye in 
the head of the handle makes it handy to hang where 
one has not a broom hanger. The mop handle can 
be fixed the same. Mop rags should never be left in 
the mop — a very bad habit: — they quickly become foul 
smelling and unsanitary (an excellent nest for disease 
germs). It takes but a moment to rinse the mop 
cloths out of clean water and throw on a little line 
outside the kitchen door, fixed for that purpose. A 


little frame make with a galvanized wire is best; 
nothing equal to out door drying. Mop cloths so taken 
care of will last two or three months. On wash day they 
can be dipped in hot suds after the wiping up is done. 
Scrubbing brushes and other brushes can be drained 
bristles downward on newspapers. It is both clean 
and sanitary, prevents foul smells and adds to the life 
of the brush. _ 

A box or little bag can be kept handy in the kitchen 
for dropping strings from groceries in. If wound on 
the hand, they won't become knotted, or a large spool 
can be kept on the kitchen shelf. The children would 
enjoy making balls or winding them on spools or cards 
cut from thin pasteboard. 

Another occupation of much joy to the children and 
a great help to the busy housewife, is cutting paraffin 
paper to fit cake pans, steam molds (baking powder 
cans), etc. They will draw the patterns themselves 
if given the tins for models. These can be kept in a 
clean pasteboard box with straws from the new broom 
or a knitting needle for testing cake. 

A clean crumb tray and whisk broom should be kept 
handy to brush the wrinkles from the lower sheet 
when straightening the beds. It keeps the sheet clean 
longer and saves making the bed up all through every 

If house cleaning is done, little at a time, say one or 
two hours each day, as cleaning a couple of dressers 
one day, a clothes closet the next, repair a rug the 
next, and so on, for about six weeks or more, it saves 
that awful dragged out feeling one experiences often 
when using the old fashioned method of cleaning, and 
sometimes doctor bills, not to speak of sparing the 
horrors and commotion of house cleaning. Though 
there may be one or two days of hard work where a 
room or two needs re-decorating, but if carefully man- 



aged and not soil the other rooms while so doing, it 
will save both nerve and strength and not seem so 
unpleasant. If done in this way it seems to do itself 
and no one knows it is going on. 

House cleaning should be made a joy, seeing how 
nice one can make old things look, and spending as 
little money as possible. A good rule to keep in mind 
is to make things look as good as possible with the 
least money. When fixing up one thing^ another is 
suggested, so that by the time one is all through, the 
house is very respectable looking. 

Linoleum worn in the center can be cut with a metal 
ruler or carpenter's plane and sharp pocket knife and 
transposed, bringing outside to the center. A rubbing 
with a soft cloth dipped in paint oil and turpentine 
occasionally, prolongs the life of the linoleum as well 
as cleaning and brightening it. It can be varnished 
once a year or as often as it may need it. It should be 
dusted with a dry mop cloth every day where there is 
a great deal of tramping on it. This saves washing it so 
often as well as adding to the sanitariness of the room. 
Use as little soap as possible when cleaning, occasion- 
ally giving it a good scrubbing with Fels Naptha soap 
and a soft scrubbing brush, at the same time wiping 
it up with a cloth wrung out of clear water. Once or 
twice a year is sufficient for such cleaning. 

An old whisk broom does very well for scrubbing 
out cracks and corners, and a toothpick is sometimes 
a little help for digging out the pesky places. 

When rain water can't be obtained, water can be 
made soft by boiling — it should boil at least ten or 
fifteen minutes, the longer it is boiled the softer it is. 
Old towels can be used to lay over kettles and a win- 
dow left open to prevent so much steam in the house. 
The wash pitchers can be filled with it after it is 
partly cooled and settled. This is next to rain water, 


best for tender hands and face. Enough can be pre- 
pared at once to last a week. Cover with a towel. 

In washing dishes, if a dipper or two of cold water 
is put in the tea kettle before pouring upon the dishes, 
the decorating of cheap dishes will wear longer and 
not get that rough and cracked appearance. This is 
the case also with glasses and silver. Ivory or white 
handled knives should never be put in hot water. 

The table silverware should never be used around 
the stove, especially in the frying pans. Soaking in 
sour milk two or three hours cleans silver very nicely. 

An inverted half pound baking powder can with 
three or four holes in the bottom, makes a nice potato 
chopper; also to cut strawberries fine for shortcake, 
thus making crushed strawberries. 

Gold Dust in about the proportion of one teaspoon 
to a quart of water, boiled in scorched cooking uten- 
sils for about twenty minutes or better, will remove 
the black, also the sticky stuff from bread tins, though 
with proper cooking and handling, kettles should not 
be scorched, and if scorched, should not be scraped. 
This will darken aluminum, which can be brightened 
with vinegar. Soaking is better; scraping and scour- 
ing should be done away with as much as possible. A 
table or molding board can be soaked by laying a wet 
cloth thereon. 

Hot Gold Dust suds is excellent for milk cans, only 
it is hard on the hands, which should be treated with 
some good hand jelly when through washing them. 
If a dipper of hot water is put in each can about an 
hour before washing them and the covers put on, the 
condensed vapor will soften the dirt on the sides. 

Gold Dust is of no value unless used with very hot 
water. Soaking with a dipper of hot water, sudsing 
well with a brush (soft scrubbing), rinse in hot water, 
then in cold, and turned upside down on a rack out 


of doors in a clean place. These five processes will 
make the cans sterile and no danger of milk souring 
due to that part of the work. 

On very cold days when it is necessary to bring 
them to the kitchen, plenty of newspapers or some 
clean old carpet rugs should be used for the floor. It 
saves slopping and keeps the heavy bottoms from cut- 
ting the floor or linoleum, as well as saving the work 
of cleaning the floor afterwards. It is well to have 
one or two changes of washable rugs. 

There should be no dust or foul smell where any- 
thing pertaining to milk is cared for or used. 

In stormy weather there should be a rack in the milk 
house for the cans — to keep them from rusting. A 
little bottle of white or black enamel or paint may be 
kept on kitchen shelf for labeling milk cans, fruit jars, 
things in the pantry and so on. It can be used very 
effectively with a toothpick, one fend of which is 
wrapped with a tiny bit of absorbent cotton. The 
enamel lasts better than labeling paper. Wash blue- 
ing and other things can be used for labeling. All 
things stored away should be labeled; it makes them 
easy to find when wanted. 

Lamps need not be cleaned every day, but the 
wicks should be rubbed ofif every day with one of the 
little rags kept in the kitchen scrap bag or box. 

The firebox of a cook stove should never be more 
than two-thirds to three-quarters full. If more than 
this a greater amount of coal is used, much heat is 
lost and the draft is checked. About three cozies of 
different sizes to fit steamer and different size kettles 
can be made of old towels of about three thicknesses 
to use in simmering meats, steaming puddings and 
for many things. It saves half, or more, of fuel and 
things cook more evenly. It may be likened to the 
fireless cooking. 


If a hot iron is not handy when marking clothes 
with indeHble ink, hold against the lamp chimney or 
gas globe. 

Broken plastered walls can be mended by mixing 
a little plaster of paris alone or with sand, with water 
Work quickly as it drys fast. Smooth with a broad 
kitchen knife. Cover with paper, alabastine or some- 
thing to match the wall or pieces of thin, firm white 
cloth dipped in alabastine can be pasted over cracks 
and holes. 

Pesky old tacks, which have been left in the floor, 
can be loosened by tapping a screwdriver lightly with 
a hammer; better if one has a pair of pincers. 

Furs may be kept free from moths, germs and odors 
by putting among them small pieces of absorbent cot- 
ton or cloth on which have been dropped a small 
quantity of formaldehyde. 

A great necessity in any house is a tool chest, which 
may be only a little wooden box with hammer, bottles 
of tacks, nails, and many little things. The uppers 
of men's old shoes can be cut into tiny squares and 
kept in this box for heads of tacks. One or two of 
these used on tacks not only saves rugs, curtains, 
floors, etc., but holds the things firmly in place. If 
you use them once, you will never drive tacks without 
them ; even neat strips of leather will bind floor oil 
cloth very nicely, or folds of cloth, then varnish. 

Grated orange and lemon rind can be used for cake 
flavoring, frosting, pudding, pies, sauces and nearly 
all sweet dishes. 

Hundred-yard bolts of hospital gauze can be pro- 
cured at any wholesale medical house, which is ex- 
cellent for straining many things in the kitchen, if 
doubled. For straining milk it should be boiled or 
steamed, and burned after using. The finest or clos- 


est woven is best. It saves lots of washing and labor. 
It should be kept wrapped in clean towels. Cheesecloth 
is best for milk (4 thicknesses). 

If cooking is properly done with the fireless cooker 
it is bound to be scientific — no nourishment being de- 
stroyed; two kinds of economy is thus used — saving 
of nourishment and fuel. Butter crocks are nice for 
cooking many things. 

A little tray or, rather, nest, like an egg case, can 
be made of a wooden box, to hold about six jars con- 
taining such things as rice, tapioca, raisins, sugar, 
etc., for a light pudding. This saves lots of steps and 
the pudding can be made quickly. The same arrange- 
ment for spices can be made or bought. Both are very 
practical. They save lots of time and searching. 

One can often get little books or helps on things 
that puzzle them by writing to the Household Depart- 
ment of any of the newspapers or magazines, enclos- 
ing a self-addressed envelope or have the question 
answered through the paper ; others then get the bene- 
fit also and consider it charitable. 

Don't look for recipes only, for there are often good 
letters and other hints of great help to anyone. 

An old catalogue of good paper makes a nice scrap 
book for pasting in things that you need. They can 
be classified and indexed. A little book in which to 
keep your own menus is often a great help in plan- 
ning a meal and helping to save. 

Last, but not least, is to have a place for everything 
as practical, convenient, simple and pretty as you 
know how to arrange, keeping in mind the saving of 
your own strength as well as sanitariness and then 
keep everything in its place. This is half of the work 
done. If you have a great deal to keep track of, then, 
when arranging, make and keep a little note book of 
your own. It will be easier to look over it than to 
search through the whole house for something you 
may want very much. 


You can accomplish a great deal by studying ways 
and means and very often your books and magazines 
will give you exactly what you need to smooth over 
the hard places. 

Often one will find very good pamphlets or cook 
books with baking powder, starch, breakfast foods, etc. 
If they are not in the packages, you can get them by 
writing to the companies that produce those articles 
or from your grocer. Almanacs and advertising ac- 
count books not only contain some good recipes, but 
other useful ideas which can be cut out and put in 
the "Kitchen Scrap Book" under each one's own head- 

You don't know how much you can accomplish until 
you try. Make an earnest effort, and, although you 
may think that your progress is slow, after six months 
of conscientious work, you will be surprised, in look- 
ing back, to see how much you have accomplished and 
how much you have improved. Any work will be 
more easily done and be found more interesting if it 
is done in the right spirit, as God meant it to be. Make 
it professional and thereby gain one of the best kinds 
of education — self-education, making life broader and 
more interesting, "He hath no other work to do," 



Oh, Thou, who kindly dost provide, 

For every creature's want ; 
We bless Thee, God of Nature wide. 

For all thy goodness lent, 
And, if it pleases thee, Heavenly Guide, 

May never worse be sent; 
But whether granted or denied, 

Lord, bless us with content! 



MENUS (Lenten) 

For three weeks in early Spring 

This menu costs four people between three and four 
dollars per week. Oftentimes a visitor drops in at 
meal time. 

Recipes for all of the following will be found 
throughout the book. 

This menu may not seem sufficient for demands of 
the system, but when all is prepared scientifically, no 
food value is wasted. 

A good rule is to plan meals the night before or 
sometimes two days ahead. Keep a little book for 
this purpose; it often helps when one is at sea and 
doesn't know just what to get. 

Sunday. Breakfast 

Buckwheat Cakes with Sugar _ Syrup. 
Coffee with Condensed Milk. 

Sirloin Steak, fried (1 lb.). Mashed Potatoes. 
Lettuce and Celery. 
One Egg Lemon Pie. Coffee. 

Cornmeal Mush (very well cooked) and Milk. 

Monday. Breakfast 

Oatmeal for all. 
Poached Egg on Toast for two. Coffee with Milk and Toast. 


Baked Hash on Toast. Brown Betty with Lemon Sauce. 

A very Small Glass of Milk for each, or half cups. 


Boiled Potatoes. Fried Onions. 



Tuesday. Breakfast 

Same as Monday. 


Corned Beef and Cabbage. Peeled Potatoes Boiled with the Beef. 

Apple Sauce. Cookies. 


Fried Potatoes. Cabbage Warmed Over. 

Hot Biscuits with Svrup. 


Wednesday. Breakfast 

Dr. Price's Celery Food, with Bananas Sliced in it and 

Milk. Excellent with Cream. 

Poached Egg on Toast for each person. 



Spaghetti. Mashed Potatoes. 

One Crust Apple Pie. 

Postum with Condensed Milk. 


Potato Patties made from left over Mashed Potatoes. 

Creamed Onions. 

Cookies. Diluted Grape Juice. 

Thursday Breakfast 

Oatmeal with Milk or Cream or half of each. 

Soft Boiled Eggs and Toast. 



Beef Loaf (Hamburg). Mashed Potatoes. 

Bread Pudding, Cinnamon Sauce. 



Scrambled Eggs. Potato Patties. 

One Egg Cake. Tea. 

Friday. Breakfast 

Fried Corn Meal Mush with Syrup, 


Boiled Eggs. Baked Potatoes. 
Johnny Cake. 
Emergency Pie with Lemon Sauce. Lemonade. 


Cold Baked Potatoes, Creamed. Left Over Johnny 

Cake, warmed in steamer. 

Doughnuts. Postum. 

Saturday. Breakfast 

Oatmeal Fried Potatoes. 

Hot Muffins. Coffee. 


Pork Steak. Potatoes in Jackets. 

Cake. Apple Sauce. 



Escalloped Potatoes. Fried Eggs. 

Bread Biscuits. Tea. 

Sunday. Breakfast 

Hot Waffles (made with one egg) and Syrup. 


Veal Loaf (2 hours). Fried Potatoes. 

Brown Bread (3 to 4 hours). 

Plum Pudding (3 to 3^ hours), Cinnamon or Brandy Sauce. 

Steam Veal Loaf, Plum Pudding and Brown Bread together 

in baking . powder cans, two of veal, two of pudding and the 

remainder of brown bread, as many as steamer will hold. 

Bread and Milk. 
Cold Sliced Veal Loaf. Potato Salad. 
Drink made from 1^ teaspoonfuls Cocoa and 3^ tea- 
spoonfuls Horlick's Malted Milk mixed dry with sugar and 
boiled in double boiler five to ten minutes. Suggestion of salt. 
Half of each hot water and sweet skimmed milk. 

Monday. Breakfast 

In country where milk is plenty. 

Creamed Toast. Prunes. 

Doughnuts. Coffee. 


Hamburg Loaf. Fried Raw Potatoes. 

Pieplant Pie. Coffee. 


Boiled Potatoes in Jackets. Creamed Onions. 


Tuesday. Breakfast 

Cold Baked Apples. 

Corn Meal Mush. Creamed Codfish on Toast. 



Leavings of Hamburg Loaf, Onions and Potatoes hashed 

together, a little milk added and browned in oven. 

Warm Baked Apples, Cinnamon Sauce. Coffee. 


Codfish Balls. Raw Onions Sliced. 

Devil's Food. Canned Peaches. 


Wednesday. Breakfast 

Pancakes with Syrup. 

Escalloped Corn. Fried Potatoes flavored with Onion. 
Boiled Rice, Japanese Style. 


Boiled Potatoes in Jackets. Creamed Cabbage. 

Rice Pudding. Buttermilk. 

Thursday. Breakfast 

Soft Boiled Eggs and Toast. Coffee. 


Boiled Frankforts. Escalloped Potatoes. 

Hot Biscuits and Syrup. 

Tapioca Pudding. Coffee. 


Warmed over Escalloped Potatoes. 

Macaroni and Cheese. 

Apple Pie. Skimmed Milk. 


Friday, Breakfast 

French Toast, Syrup. 


Baked Potatoes. Fried Onions. 

Cold Baked Apples with Cream, or Hot Baked Apples with sauce. 



Steamed Salmon Loaf with Sauce. 

Green Tomato Mince Meat Pie. 


Saturday. Breakfast- 

Apples. Oatmeal. 

Raised Muffins and Syrup. 



Fried Potatoes. Creamed Cabbage. 

Hot Bread Biscuits and Syrup. 


Bean Soup and Crackers or Croutons. 

Cold Biscuits. Tea. 

Sunday. Breakfast 

Oatmeal. Bacon and Eggs. 

Toast. Coffee. 


Fried Ham. Mashed Potatoes. 

English Apple Pudding. 


Oatmeal and Milk. Bananas. 
Bread. Cocoa. 

Monday. Breakfast 

Buckwheat Cakes and Syrup. 


Boiled Ham. Potatoes, Rutabagas or Turnips. 



Baked Potatoes. Creamed Codfish. 

Tapioca Pudding. Diluted Grape Juice'. 


Tuesday. Breakfast 

Apples. Oatmeal or Cream of Wheat. 

Creamed Toast. Coffee. 


Creamed Dried Beef on Toast. 

Baked Potatoes. 

Stewed Prunes. Coffee. 


Baked Potatoes Creamed. Canned Peas. 

Apple Jack. 

Wednesday. Dinner 

Raw Fried Potatoes. Creamed Onions. 

One Egg Bread Pudding with Sauce or Fruit Juice. 



Raw Potatoes Creamed. Codfish Balls. 

Onions SHced in Vinegar, Salt, Pepper and Sugar. 

Prune Pudding made with Bread Dough. 


Thursday. Dinner 

Cold Boiled Ham. 

Potatoes, Parsnips, Onions and Other Vegetables may be 

boiled in Ham Juice with Bone and Piece of Rind. 


Fried Eggs, Fried Potatoes. 

Cream of Wheat Pudding. Tea. 

Friday. Dinner 

Potato Soup and Croutons. 

Canned Fruit and Cookies or Doughnuts. 



Steamed Brown Bread and Salmon Loaf. 


Saturday. Dinner 

Browned or Smothered Round Steak. Potatoes in Jackets. 
Hot Bread Biscuits. 



Fried Potatoes. Omelet, or Baked Beans. 

Apple Dumplings Steamed. 

Half Cups Milk. 

The early spring is the hardest time of year to plan 
meals, and for those who cannot afford all of the above 
menu, I would say, lean strongly on the cooked cereals 
and milk, oatmeal especially. Twice a day is not too 
much to have these. 

Read chapter on milk and you will realize its value. 
The cereals must be well cooked in double boiler or 
steamer; two, three or four hours is not too much. 
Gas can be saved by lowering after they start boiling 
and covering the kettle well with cozies. Keep old 
towels for this purpose, using two or three thicknesses. 

The Scotch people are fond of their oatmeal, and in 
many families it is used three times a day; they are 
among the strongest people of the world, both intel- 
lectually and physically. 

Yon will find many cheap recipes that can be substi- 
tuted in the above menus. In buying for the table, 
one can save a great deal by being careful. Ten cents 
worth of dried beef will do for two meals. For boiled 
ham, get the butt or shank end where family is small ; 
ten cents worth of beef stew may be cooked with it. 
Buying macaroni, peas, corn, tomatoes, etc., by the 
dozen, saves considerably, or grocers will often mix a 
dozen. If one has a little garden, considerable can be 
saved by having a few cans of vegetables put up. 


This is beyond most people's means; I simply put 
it in to use as a reference to help in planning meals. 
Those having dinner at nopn can change the order, 
substituting luncheon for supper. 










Supper — 


Dinner — 

Breakfast — Musk Melon, warmed corn flakes, 
bacon and eggs, warmed biscuits, 

Roast chicken, boiled potatoes, sweet 
corn, tea, watermelon. 

Cold chicken, cake, cocoa, pears. 

•Same as Sunday. 

Vegetable soup, cold ham, chocolate, 

cake, sliced peaches, lemonade, or 

diluted grape juice. 
Lamb chops, boiled potatoes, squash, 

watermelon, coffee. 

Breakfast — Melons, corn flakes, com fritters, bacon, 

eggs, coffee. 
Luncheon — Creamed potatoes, summer sausage, 

chocolate cake, sliced peaches, tea. 
Dinner — Breaded sweetbreads, boiled potatoes, 

creamed carrots, coffee, lemon pie. 

Breakfast — Same as Tuesday. 

Luncheon— Poached eggs on toast, hot biscuits, 

lemon cake, blueberries, iced tea. 
Dinner— Liver and bacon, boiled potatoes, 

creamed cabbage, tapioca pudding, 


Breakfast — Melons, cream of wheat, toast, boiled 
eggs, coffee. 

Luncheon — Corn fritters, warmed potatoes, lemon 
cake, musk melons, cocoa. 

Dinner— Broiled porterhouse steak, mashed po- 
tatoes, cucumbers, watermelon, cof- 

Breakfast — ^Melons, Dr. Price's Celery food, poached 
eggs on toast, doughnuts and coffee. 

Luncheon — Creamed tomato soup, raw fried pota- 
toes, sardines, ginger cake, water- 
melon, tea. 

Dinner — Baked white fish, baked potatoes, chow- 
chow, sweet corn, half musk melons 
filled with sliced peaches, coffee. 

Breakfast — Half musk melons filled with grapes, 
cream of wheat, bacon and eggs, 
pop-overs, coffee. 

Luncheon — Fried sausage, ginger bread, blueber- 
ries, tea. 

Dinner — Baked sliced ham, escalloped potatoes, 
vegetable salad, pineapple sherbet, I 
tea. j^ 


Hallowe'en (Select from the following) 

Mystery cake, this is Devil's food containing arti- 
cles such as rings, buttons, thimbles, etc., pumpkin 
pie, doughnuts, coffee, cider, pickles, popcorn, chest- 
nuts, fruit, deviled ham sandwiches. Witch's brew is 
Scotch broth or any nice broth. 

Colors, red, black and yellow. Jack-o'-lanterns are 
made out of pumpkins and pasteboard boxes with can- 
dle. These make nice center pieces for a little hal- 
lowe'en supper. The dining room can be all lighted 
with jack-o'-lanterns. This pleases the children. 

^ Nezv Years 

Breakfast — Oranges, cream of wheat, waffles, coffee. 
Dinner — Roast pig, apple sauce, mashed potatoes, mashed 

turnips, plum pudding with cinnamon sauce, coffee. 
Supper — Potato croquettes, cold roast pig, fruit cake, apple 

sauce, tea. 

Easter Sunday 
Breakfast — Eggs in different styles, ham and eggs, toast and 

Dinner — Stewed chicken, boiled potatoes whole, peas, oranges. 

and cocoanut and coffee. 
Supper — Fried or warmed potatoes, cold chicken, bread and 

jam, tea. 
Flower — The lily. 

July 4th 

Breakfast — Strawberries, cream and sugar, creamed codfish, 
buttered toast and coffee. 

Dinner — Roast beef, browned potatoes, lettuce, ice cream, cake, 

Supper — Cold beef, brown hashed potatoes, cake, strawber- 
ries, tea. 

Labor Day 
Breakfast — Muskmelons, Ralston's food, creamed dried beef on 

toast, coffee. 
Dinner — Baked ham and sweet potatoes, stewed tomatoes, 

squash pie, coffee. 
Supper — Cold sliced ham, sweet potatoes, sliced and fried, 
cake, sliced peaches, tea. 



Breakfast— Grapes, oatmeal with cream, pancakes with syrup 

or honey, bacon, coffee. 
Dinner — Roast turjcey, baked sweet potatoes, mashed potatoes, 

brown gravy, cranberry sauce, pumpkin pie, coffee, 

fruit, olives, etc. 
Supper — Cold turkey, potato patties, cake and cranberry 

sauce, tea. 


Breakfast — Oranges, oatmeal and cream, pancakes and new pork 
fried, coffee. _ 

Dinner — Roast duck or goose, apple sauce,' baked sweet pota- 
toes, mashed potatoes, canned corn, warm mince 
pie, coffee. Small pieces of plum pudding may be 
served with the pie. 

Supper — Cold goose or duck, sweet potatoes sliced and fried, 
fruit cake, sauce, tea. 

No menus will be given for fall or early winter as there is 
such an abundance of things they almost suggest themselves with 
very little thought and planning. 

Good Friday 
Select from the following, preparing the dishes with- 
out lard, butter or eggs : 

Breakfast — Oatmeal and milk, creamed toast, coffee or pan- 
cakes and syrup. 

Dinner — Escalloped potatoes, macaroni and tomatoes, creamed 
macaroni, bananas and milk or fruit of any kind, 
dumplings in boiled salted water or steamed. 

Supper — Baked potatoes, creamed onions, cornmeal mush 

and milk. Some of the fruit and vegetable soups 

may be selected to accompany two or three of the 


Drink plenty of milk and one will not suffer with 

Hot Cross Buns. (Plain buns with a cross cut on top.) 

Shrove Tuesday (Day before Ash Wednesday) — Pancakes. 

Ash Wednesday — Any Lenten Menu. 

St. Patrick's Day (March 17) — Irish potatoes one of the 
prominent features. Color scheme, green. Potato cake, potato 
soup, potato salad decorated with shamrock. 

Decorations or souvenirs: Irish clay pipes, Irish paper flags, 
shamrock, toy harps, stove pipe hats, (toy), candy Irish pota- 
toes, etc. 


St. Valentine's Day — February 14 : 

Decorations — Red paper hearts and cupids ; heart shaped candy 
boxes ; heart shaped candies and cookies. 

Palm Sunday — Decorations, palms. Any Sunday menu. 

Toasts should be given with soft drinks. "Look not upon the 
wine when it is red " — 

Small glasses of diluted grape juice are very dainty with a 
nice dinner. 


"Here's to the land of shamrock so green; 

Here's to each lad and his darling colleen. 
Here's to the one we love dearest and most ; -• 
And may God save old Ireland — that's the Irishman's toast; 


Here's to our Christmas, may it bring us good cheer ! 
May the joy of this Christmas reach all, far and near, 
May -the message of Christmas to all hearts be clear ; 
May it soothe every sorrow and dry every tear. 
May it bind closer to us each soul that is dear, 
And the spirit of Christmas last all through the year. 


"Here's to the heathe, the hills and the heather. 
The bonnet, the plaide, the kilt and the feather, 
Here's to the heroes that Scotland can boast. 
May their names never die; that's a Highlandman's toast" 



"Laugh and the world laughs with you." 

Where one has to go into a cold kitchen in the morn- 
ing and has not a pair of high felt shoes, then secure 
a pair of man's all wool socks and slip on over stock- 
ings before putting on slippers. 

They should be removed when house is warmed up. 
One of the secrets of good health is to keep the feet 
and ankles warm^ but not so they will perspire too 
freely. A little perspiration is very good. The Indian 
method of dressing in skins is a method of no small im- 

Where the doors of the kitchen are opened and shut 
often, this will let in enough fresh air in cold weather, 
but if not, lower a window from the top or raise from 
the bottom and set in a piece of pasteboard or a little 
board kept for this purpose. The fresh air will then 
come in between the two windows (upper and lower). 
In large cities where there is so much soot and dust, 
a piece of gauze fitted to the open space, in different 
ways, will keep out a great deal of the dirt. This 
should be washed frequently as it becomes very dirty 
and hinders the fresh air from coming through. This 
is a good method for sleeping rooms. Little frames 
can be made to fit or tack the gauze over and not in- 
jure the varnish of the window woodwork. 

Sleep with windows wide open winter or summer, 
the air blowing on one, does not hurt if the body is 
Well protected. It is an abominable habit to sleep with 
head covered. If face is irritated in any way, it can 
be protected by cotton and salves, but leave the nose 


free for fresh air. Bed clothing should be light but 
warm — if one has not blankets enough, use news- 
papers. Fresh air ! though you do get up with a "stuffy 
head" it will soon wear away. The stuffy head really 
comes from a stuffy self-poisoned system. A cup of 
very hot water sipped slowly an hour or at least a half 
hour before breakfast, will relieve this stuffiness. Fresh 
air, plenty of it day and night, is the test and cheap- 
est medicine for all diseases and the greatest beauti- 
fier. Prevents wrinkles. One should dress in another 
room which is warm (for the pores of the skin are 
open and relaxed on arising), or if a bathroom is in 
the house, it should be nicely warmed for washing, 
or better stilly a cold bath or rub cold water all over 
the skin with hands, wiping and patting dry, then put- 
ting on undergarments before putting the finishing 
touches to one's toilet. If cold water causes a feeling 
of lassitude in the afternoon, then use tepid water. If 
the bathroom has not a stove, use an oil heater, or not 
possessing this, set two ordinary lamps with good 
sized burners down on the floor. Plan, and one will 
find some method to heat a bathroom. Next to the 
kitchen, it should be the cleanest and most used room 
of the house, and must be warm for bathing purposes 
whether warm or cold baths are taken. If there is 
not a bathroom in the house, fit up a small bedroom 
for that purpose, or screen off a corner of the 
kitchen, to prevent drafts and insure privacy, and heat 
it. Then good sponge baths can be taken. The fur- 
nishings are simple — a small chair, a small foot bath 
tub or good large granite wash basin, a small dish pan 
can be kept for such, a nice pail for warm water, a 
pitcher for cold water, a pail to empty the water, a 
soap dish, a little line to hang wash rags and towels 
and a hook to hang one's garments, a strawberry crate 
makes a nice cupboard for towels and wash cloths, and 


a clean, washable rug. Two washable rugs (old pieces 
of rag carpet neatly hemmed) should be kept for the 
bathroom so that one can be washed each week. Old 
sheets and pillow cases make nice rag rugs for bath- 
room. Folding bathtubs can be bought, but where one 
can't afford it, they can find some way of supplying 
the necessaries for a bath. Towels can be hung and 
dried and used a few times if one is careful of them, 
but wash rags should be scrupulously clean — a fresh 
one every day is none too much, or even two, using 
a separate one for the face. They should be dried be- 
fore putting in the laundry bag or hamper. Wash rags 
can be made from old towels, underwear, etc., and 
should not be used for cleaning anything around the 
bathroom. Keep for the skin, and towels the same. 
Bran bags and bath brushes are excellent, but must 
have nice care. If sponges are used, wash often in 
warm suds, rinse and dry out doors. Soft water is best 
for bathing and drinking. Boiling makes it soft, and 
the longer the better. Each member of the family can 
be taught to wipe out the tub when through. A little 
clean cloth can be left on a line or non-rustable hanger 
for this purpose. Bathing is an excellent preservative 
of health. Every day is not too often, or even twice a 
day when the weather is oppressive and work dirty. 
A slapping with hands dipped in cold water after a 
hot bath, will close the pores and prevent taking cold. 
Will help to cure a cold also. Bathing is one of the 
aids to cure indigestion and nervousness, as well as 
many other diseases. If the skin cannot be bathed in 
water as in cases of eczema or salt rheum, then it 
should have a good cleansing with whatever one's 
physician prescribes. Vaseline and menthol crystals 
are better to cleanse eczema than olive oil, though it 
irritates at first, it is very palliative. Rub well into 
the pores, getting out the dirt, then wipe off dry with 


absorbent cotton or old linen. One-sixth glycerine and 
five-sixths rosewater is a very nice cleanser also. 

Never bathe just after eating; even a child in a 
spasm should not be plunged into water on a full 

The early morning is the best time for a' cold bath, 
and night is best for a hot bath. A good talcum-is ex- 
cellent after a bath. Once a week, or at least once in 
"^ two weeks, the bathroom should have a thorough 


One should do their work in a restful way, but you 
will not find that way until you begin to think about it. 
Where one gets up early in the morning, they will pre- 
serve their strength by taking a short nap after din- 
ner. Even if it is only fifteen minutes, it does lots of 
good, though one does feel sick after waking, first. 
This is a common rule among the French housewifes, 
which is one reason they are always young and fresh 


"Early to bed and early to rise 
If you would be healthy, wealthy and wise." 

Don't forget to open the windows nor that the open 
window is good for the complexion and will keep you 
young. Never sleep in your underwear. It should 
be hung up so as to be fresh and aired for 
morning. Wearing it at night prevents the free 
action of the skin during sleep, while the loose night 
dress benefits it. A long, loose jacket of eiderdown, 
flannel or any warm material can be worn over the 
night dress. Caps, earlaps and nose caps, even gloves 
(loose) may be worn. 

"Sweet is the sleep of the laboring man," if taken 


with fresh air. Sleep and enough of it strengthens and 
relaxes all the organs of elimination; that is, the 
bowels, skin, lungs and kidneys. Too much sleep 
softens and enfeebles. If these organs do not do their 
work properly, then the poison which should be elim- 
inated is diffused through the system, making it a prey 
for disease. It does not always become a prey in a 
day, a week, a month, or even a year. It sometimes 
takes years to break down a good constitution, but no 
one can abuse nature without suffering for it. Four 
or five hours sleep one night and ten or eleven the next 
night, is a very bad practice for even the strongest. It 
will tell the results some day. Though one does not 
feel the effects at once, it is a harsh treatment for such 
delicate organs as the kidneys, lungs and heart, not 
to speak of the stronger parts of the body. "Two 
hours sleep before midnight is worth six after" has 
its meaning, for it is then that sleep is most needed 
and does most good. 


Drink water and plenty of it, at the very least three 
pints a day. Pure water, both hot and cold. The in- 
side of the body needs washing and cleaning just as 
well as the outside. Any organ may be likened to a 
machine, or furnace ; if it must do its work well, it 
must be kept clean. An hour before eating or two 
hours after is best for drinking; then the fluid will not 
interfere with the digestive fluids, but if one is so sit- 
uated that they can't get water at such times, then 
drink with your meals, or better still, drink all you 
can on arising and retiring. 


Eating, as well as cooking, is a fine art. Knowing 
how to eat well is knowing how to live well. The 


more simple dishes are often the most tasty. Disease 
is not so often brought on by what we eat as by how 
much and when and the method of preparation. 

Horace Fletcher said, "Never eat when you are 
angry or sad; only when you are glad." Waiting for 
the mood in connection with the appetite, is a speedy 
cure for both anger and worry. 

Eat only in response to an actual appetite, which 
will be satisfied with plain bread and butter. Right 
living is usually accompanied by a good appetite and 
good digestion and cheerfulness. Chew all solid food 
until it is liquid and practically swallows itself. Sip 
and taste all liquids that have taste, such as soup and 
lemonade. Water has no taste and can be swallowed 

- Cultivate regular habits of eating, not between 
meals or at bedtime. If one must lunch between meals 
or at bedtime, let it be a liquid diet, if possible, taken 
at the same hour each day. 

Where one is so situated that he can't get away 
from work for nourishment, then two or three of Hor- 
lick's Malted Milk Tablets are excellent to keep up 
the strength of both mental and physical hard labor- 
ers, especially those suffering from kidney trouble. 
We are often faint, weak and nervous and don't know 
that we are hungry. 

Relax for twenty minutes before eating. Lying 
down is best. One should not work hard physically 
or mentally just before eating. Eat moderately and 
of simple foods well combined. Meat once a day for 
those working inside and twice a day for those outside, 
is sufficient, avoiding fried meat as much as possible. 
A rest from meat for two or three days is often a very 
.good thing for an overtaxed system, so lenten rules 
are not averse to laws of health. Too much meat 
eating is too much a tax on the kidneys. The same is 


true of sweets. Both should be used carefully and not 

Avoid wine and beer. Alcohol clogs the liver and 
irritates the other organs, and even the homemade 
wine contains a goodly percentage of alcohol. Like- 
wise avoid rich candy, preserves, heavy puddings and 
cold meat unless carefully kept. It is best not to use 
cold meat after the second day, except ham and 
corned beef. 

Drink plenty of water between meals. 


Dress so that each and all the organs of the body 
have plenty of freedom, especially lungs and bowels. 
Dress warm enough to be protected from sudden 
changes of temperature, but not too warm. 

Children are often dressed too warm, and hence 
catch cold. The most of houses are kept too warm 


Save all the old white, clean rags during the year, 
in a bag or box, and oftentimes soft paper napkins can 
be bought cheap. These are nice for any sickness. 
Roll these in a newspaper, after using (prevents spread 
of germs), and burn. Such things should not be 

These save the handkerchiefs and lots of labor. 
Take hot bath at night and follow menu at end of 
chapter for a few days till well. These are only or 
most often the results of a clogged system. People 
who sleep with open windows rarely have a cold. An 
alcohol rub is also very good. 


After washing hands do not hold over the fire or 
go immediately out in the cold. Either will chap them. 


When either are very sore, soak in very warm water 
for fifteen minutes before retiring, clean well with 
castile or any pure soap, rinse with cold water, dry 
well with a towel softly, not wipe, and rub on some 
alcohol. This is sufficient for mild cases. 

For severe cases, do the same, only after rubbing 
with alcohol, put some good hand jelly or salve on 
hands and talcum on feet. Put talcum on feet before 
putting on shoes in the morning. Loose glooves 
should be used when salve is used, made of cotton 
flannel or any material heavy enough to protect bed 
clothes. Alcohol is best used by rubbing it on with a 
little sponge of absorbent cotton. It is very cleansing 
and a good disinfectant even for a fresh cut. Stock- 
ings need not be washed every day, but should be 
aired. Wash at least twice a week. Warm feet are a 
great aid to health and beauty. Wash in cold water, 
rub and put on flannel bed slippers when retiring. Ex- 
ercise them. In day time wear felt boots if necessary 
but change stockings every day. They are not out of 
place for ladies in the early morning in a cold kitchen. 


Keep the bowels open and take plenty of well regu- and sleep ; eat simple healthful food. Wash 
or rather scrub well for about five minutes every 
night, with plenty of good castile, ivory or any pure 
soap, hot water (soft) and a good brush or a very 
clean, soft wash rag if face is tender ; rinse well with 
clear, hot water, then with clear, cold water. Once or 
twice a week after this hot wash, clean out the pores 
well with a cotton sponge dipped in alcohol; this will 
cure pimples and prevent others from coming, if this 
method is combined with right living. In the morning 
either souse well with cold soft water or rub well with 
a clean, soft wash cloth dipped in cold water. Never 


wash the face just before going out or after coming in. 
If one has no soft water, they can boil a kettle full, 
once or twice a week and keep it covered in a large 
pitcher for hands and face. A little of it can be heat- 
ed each night for the face. The water should be 
boiled at least fifteen minutes ; half an hour is better, 
and let it settle a few minutes before pouring into 
pitcher. There are some kinds of water that boiling- 
makes harder. Some melt a little piece of ice to wash 
the face. Never wash the face in hot water and then 
go out in the cold. Drink plenty of hot water and be 
beautiful also breathe plenty of fresh air day and night 
and be beautiful. 


For shampooing, follow the rule for washing flan- 
nels, except make the lather or suds stronger, using 
nothing but soft water, no borax or ammonia, and 
rinse in about five warm waters and one cold; the cold 
water is a tonic for the scalp and prevents taking cold. 
It is even good to go out doors if cold weather just a 
minute and let the cold air strike the scalp for a 
second. The hair will dry faster too. Dry by running 
the fingers through and massaging the scalp well. An 
hour is none too much to massage. Do not brush or 
comb till thoroughly dry and never turn up the end of 
a braid and tie tightly ; this breaks the delicate shafts. 
Rubbing the scalp well with the ends of the fingers, 
not the nails, for five minutes every night and morn- 
ing, is good for the scalp and hair. Though it often 
rubs out dead hair it is very beneficial, making a new 
and healthier growth. Never use raw soap, no matter 
what kind. Raw eggs beaten just enough to break 
the whites, are better than a lather for very greasy 
hair, but must be rinsed well. Leave loose at night 
so that the air can get to the scalp. Fresh air, cleans- 


ing and massaging are cheaper and better than tonics. 
Some singe the end of the hair with a burning match, 
during the time of the new moon each month. Simply 
bring the braid around and burn off the tips. Brush 
the dust out each night or give a sort of dry shampoo 
every third night, using good talcum or other powders. 
This not only cleanses but increases the circulation of 
the scalp as well as the rubbing. Shampoo not oftener 
than every two weeks, nor less than four. In very 
hot weather, children once a week and men doing very 
dirty shop work can shampoo often, without injury, if 
careful. A little alcohol is good for the scalp occas- 
ionally and good talcum or equal parts of therox and 
orris root every night before brushing, cleanses greasy 
hair (this is dry shampoo). "Right living is one of the 
best means of keeping hair and scalp healthy." 


It pays to buy a good hair brush, plain but good 
material, and wash carefully as you do the hair, about 
once a week or once in two weeks, according to the 
work you do. Dry quickly with bristles down on a" 
towel in the sun or some warm place. With good 
care, a good brush will last for years. Each person 
should have his own comb and brush. If one can't 
afford this, then keep them as clean as possible. 


Begin with early childhood and teach the child to 
clean its teeth thoroughly, at least once a day, scrub- 
bing the gums, also the teeth up and down. Impress 
upon him the value of this through life. See a dentist 
occasionally and keep in as good shape as possible. 
Nothing adds more to personal daintiness and health 
than clean, sound teeth. Clean teeth never decay. 



From early childhood the nostrils should be washed 
out thoroughly morning and evening to guard against 
mouth breathing. Little rags may be kept for this pur- 
pose and burned as soon as used. If a child persists in 
mouth breathing a good doctor should be consulted. 


This is one of the great essentials of good health. 
It helps the four organs of elimination to carry off the 
poisons of the body. Just compare the body, especial- 
ly the workings of these four organs, with a stove or 
furnace and you can easily see that a clogged up sys- 
tem will do its work just as a clogged up furnace or 
stove will. 

Lungs carry off poison by expiration or breathing 
out. The skin by transpiration, hence the necessity 
of keeping the pores open by means of bathing. The 
kidneys by urination and the bowels by defecation. 
This last is so often abused by means of strong ca- 
thartics which should be avoided and take a course as 
near to nature as possible. 

Plenty of fresh air, rest, relaxation, exercise, bath- 
ing, good water and good, simple food properly 
cooked, is the best cure for constipation and atten- 
tion to the bowels at the same hour every day. 

A simple enema of salt water for nine days at the 
same hour each day, will assist nature to bring one's 
self to a normal condition, but don't let the use of the 
enema become a habit. Children should be taught to 
go to the stool at the same hour each day. Eight 
o'clock or a little earlier in the morning is a good 
hour, then it won't interfere with their school work 
It is easier to train them from babyhood, but if no 
started from babyhood, start at once, "Never too late 
to learn" and "Better late than never." 



Form good habits from early childhood and keep 
them through life. There are many but of only two 
I will speak, 1, Use paper handkerchiefs for ex- 
pectorating and burn, thereby showing charity to the 
one who washes. Never spit on sidewalk or floor. 
2. It is charitable and adds much to one's success in 
life to call people by their correct names as they are 
often very sensitive about this matter. It adds much 
to one's self-respect and respect for others. 

Living too fast, cooking too fast and eating too 
fast is the true cause of tuberculosis (the Great White 
Plague), and most of all other dreaded diseases. To 
these three causes add the lack of fresh air, which is 
rapidly being remedied in our factories and other 


In case the children get poison or one takes poison 
by mistake, keep cool and the first thing send for a 
physician. While he is coming, induce vomiting by 
sticking finger in mouth to tickle throat. Drink a 
pint of warm mustard water (^ teaspoonful of 
mustard), sweet oil, whites of eggs, lard or anything 
that will cause vomiting, and save contents for doctor 
to examine. Vomiting will come easy if you only 
have confidence in what you are doing, and this is 
often all that is necessary, but it is always best to 
have the doctor for fear some of the vital organs have 
been weakened and need stimulating. 


for anyone in ill health, no matter what the disease, 
which will greatly assist your physician in getting you 
well. It is even safe in typhoid and other fevers, ex- 
cept substitute liquid diet for the regular meals and 


give diet two or three times during the night, say 
about 10 :00, 2 :00 and 4 :50, if patient is awake ; (sleep 
is one of the builders of health and strength). If 
continued from six to twelve weeks, it will cure se- 
vere eases of constipation, nervousness and catarrh. 
Catarrh and colds and pimples are really the effect of a 
clogged system and lack of rest, in other words, all 
run down. You will notice that water is not given too 
near the diet. Fresh air all times of night and day is 
understood; also scientific cooking. 

6 :00 a. m. Large cup of hot water sipped slowly 
with spoon. 

6 :30 a. m. Arise, take a cold bath or a slight rub- 
bing all over with cold water or as cold as you can 
stand. Then rub vigorously with a towel. This 
should be complete in five minutes. 

7 :00. Breakfast, light and nourishing, a little 
fruit, hot breakfast food, toast, poached egg or soft 
boiled, and hot milk. 

7 :00-10 :00. If a convalescent, rest in the fresh air 
and have some one give you an oil rub, after resting. 
Better if you can afford a trained masseur or near a 
sanitarium where you can go, and take a treatment 
every day or even once a week. 

9 :00. Good glass of cold water if one desires, if 
not let it go unless prescribed by doctor. 

10:00. Nourishment, hot milk is best of all. Just 
one cup or one can take an eggnog, dish of ice cream 
occasionally, egg lemonade, orangeade, raw egg or any 
little thing easy to digest. 

11 :00. Pint cup of hot water taken slowly as in the 

12 :00. Dinner. Any regular dinner of simple food 
properly cooked, eaten slowly. No fried meat, no 
drink of any kind. Cold water may be taken between 
2:00 and 3:00. 



1 :00-3 :00. Rest, lying down in loose garments, out- 
doors if possible and alone. You cannot relax and 
entertain. An oil rub or good bath is beneficial about 
3 :00 p. m. 

4 :00. Nourishment as at 10 :00 a, m. 

5 :00. Pint cup of hot water. 
. 6 :00. Supper, light and nourishing. Hot break- 
fast food is always good. 

7 :00-9 :00. Reading, walking, visiting, being careful 
not to overdo. 

9 :00. Hot milk from Yt. cup to one cup. If stomach 
is inclined to contain more or less acid, drink one cup 
of hot water about 8 :00 o'clock ; this will prepare the 
stomach for the milk — a cup of Horlick's malted milk 
is very good at bedtime ; it tends to loosen the bowels 
and kidneys for most people. 

This programme is meant for a convalescent or sick 
one at home. A fever case should not be rubbed till 
getting better and the fever is gone. Sponge lightly 

One working may change it as best they can to suit 
their needs. All drinks for patients should be strained, 
even eggnog. 

A careful study of the principles and recipes of this 
book will give plenty of material to make this menu 
very tasty and plenty of variety for different dinners 
and suppers each day. 

Last but not least in this chapter are four good rules 
to secure health and happiness : 

1. Keep the head cool. 

2. Keep the feet warm. 

3. Keep the bowels open. ' 

4. Live in the fear of the Lord. 

These were the rules given by some noted medical 




(Items that were omitted in other chapters may be found here.) 

Meat is more tender after being kept a short time 
than when first killed. In winter, beef and mutton 
will keep for six weeks if hung in a dry, cool place. 
Some rub it well with vinegar and salt every few days. 
A tough piece of meat may be laid in rather weak vin- 
egar, for two or three days, to which spices have been 

To make a tough steak tender, put a few spoonfuls 
of vinegar over it and let stand about twelve hours. 
No bacteria can live in the vinegar. In winter it is 
cheaper to buy a supply of meat, as there are so many 
ways of preparing it, as sausage, corn beef. 

Pork should never be salted before it is cooled, nor 
be allowed to freeze before salting. 

It is not good to let meat freeze, as it loses much 
of its nutriment, also toughens ; but if it does freeze, 
do not allow it to thaw until ready to cook. Cold 
storage and freezing do not mean the same. A room 
can be made in the cellar, very clean, sanitary and cold, 
almost freezing, which will keep a rather even temper- 
ature, for meats, milk and many things. Nothing 
warm should ever enter it — get everything cold — the 
same rule applies to an icebox. 

To make choice veal, a calf should never be allowed 
to run on the grass, and not killed too young. 

In dressing a lamb or sheep, be careful not to let 
the wool touch the meat or fat, as it taints it so that 
it cannot be used for cooking. 


Mashed potatoes, with an egg, may be used for a 
crust for a meat pie with enough flour to roll it out. 

When canned tomatoes are not on hand for flavor- 
ing, use catsup. 

Milk gravy makes a good substitute for eggs in 
making croquettes, patties, etc. 

Secret of How to Make Bad Boys Good: Treat 
them well. "Trust a boy and you make him trust- 
worthy." This requires much care and study and the 
right interpretation of the meaning. Treating well 
does not mean spoiling. 

Write on a sheet of paper emergencies and things 
you do not want to forget and frame or passe partout. 
Hang in the kitchen and refer to it occasionally, or 
paste on front of kitchen scrap book. It may save you 
lots of accidents and money. 

Home Made Baking Powder (The Best) : Nine 
ounces of the best bicarbonate of soda, 16 ounces of 
cream of tartar, % pound of good corn starch (^ 
pound does no harm). This makes about 2 pounds. 
Sift about ten times, so that it will be thoroughly mixed 
and seal in pint fruit jars or small cans. Do not pack. 
This makes about 2y^ pint jars — costing about sixty 
cents, or less. Use a little less than of most baking 
powders. Buy the ingredients from your druggist. 

Galvanized iron should not be used for cooking pur- 
poses, as it poisons. 

Water should not pass through zinc-lined iron pipes. 

Water should not be used from hot water faucet for 
cooking. It is better to keep a large tea kettle full on 
the stove, or small one, as required. 

A pitcher or pail of pure cold water (the colder the 
better) will greatly aid in ventilating and purifying a 
room ; it absorbs the gases from respiration, etc. 

It is well to mix a little carbolic acid in whitewash 
or moresco for calcimining the cellar. It acts both as a 


disinfectant and deodorizer. Moresco is better, as it 
washes off easily and can be removed and renewed 
every year or two ; frequency of change depends on 
how well aired and how much the cellar is used. 

There is no excuse for a foul smelling cellar if just 
a little common sense and good management are used 
in caring for it. 

In Building a house, whether it be a cottage or a 
mansion, particular attention should be given to the 
sanitary and keeping qualities of a cellar; the dryer, 
lighter and more airy, the better. If there is to be a 
laundry and heating plant, they should be well shut 
off from the vegetable and fruit part. The fruit part 
should be in such condition that it can both be dark- 
ened and lighted, if possible, so that during a good part 
of the summer it may be left open. 

A pail of cold water w'ill aid to prevent freezing and 
also help purify, but it must be changed frequently, 
and, where the wall is not hollow, it would be well to 
lay clean old boards against the part of the wall used 
for cold storage, or one can easily fix potatoes, etc., so 
there will be a layer of air between them and the wall. 
The same would be well to serve underneath. For 
this reason, barrels are better than bins and should be 
set up off the floor, but either should be put out in the 
summer time to be purified for winter use. 

More money should be spent for sanitation and com- 
mon sense in the building of a house than in orna- 
mentation. A house can be planned to save labor, 
time and steps, and still present a good appearance by 
its simplicity. Long, dark, dismal halls should be 
done away with — the parlor also — making the living 
room, with plenty of warmth and light, always a pleas- 
ant place for both callers and family. 

When dry garbage is burned in the backyard, one 
place only should be kept for that purpose and the 


ashes should be swept up and put in garbage can ; 
this keeps the yard cleaner and will not annoy the 
neighbors or destroy the lawn; or if one has a little 
garden, it may be burned in a hollow and then covered 
with dirt, or in little holes dug here and there and slops 
thrown in with it for fertilization. 

On a farm there is usually some place to be filled 
in where ashes and so forth may be put and covered. 
Always bury garbage that cannot be burned or used 
for fertilization very deep unless hauled away. 

•A cistern should never be built under the house and 
should be thoroughly cleaned at least once a year. An 
out-door closet can be made almost odorless by keep- 
ing on hand a box or pail of pulverized clay or garden 
soil (dry) with a shovel in it. The boxes or vault 
should be cleaned at least once a month ; the contents 
can be used as a fertilizer. Wet slops should not be 
thrown in, but thrown in different places so as to 
avoid smelling. A sprinkling can with water and a little 
Formalin is fine for closet, cellar, etc. 

A sort of hood can be placed above the kitchen range 
attached to the pipe or chimney to carry off the 
worst of the gas, steam and smoke. 

Old stove boards (zinc), registers, brass fixtures, 
etc., can be made to look like new by painting with 
stove pipe enamel. 

One gallon of paint, which may be bought in quart 
or half-gallon pails, of different colors, with about one 
quart each of turpentine and oil for thinning, will do 
borders and prime the centers of four ordinary size 
floors. The turpentine and oil should be added only 
as needed. Chip glue dissolved in luke warm water over 
night cleanses walls. Wipe dry. 

A bicycle pump may be used to clean tufted furni- 

Sidewalks. — Whether one lives in the country or in 
town, sidewalks mean a reduction of a great deal of 
the hard labor in the house, even if one can only afford 


them one foot wide. If the earth is cut away from 
them for two or three inches and a little ashes banked 
on each side, it will keep the grass from growing over 
them and also drain off the water. They should be 
kept clean summer and winter and show the kind of 
people inside the house no matter where the home may 
be. Transform the unsightly backyard into a spot of 
beauty. Encourage the children to help by picking 
up sticks, etc. 

The stringy part of the egg should always be re- 
moved, no matter how it is prepared for food. When 
eggs are high priced, save one or two wherever pos- 
sible by substituting one tablespoonful of corn starch. 

Near dock and dandelion leaves, mixed or either one 
alone, make nice greens in the early spring. Both have 
medicinal properties. Beet greens are often good in 
September if in a shady place. 


When hemming sheets, begin an inch or two from 
the edge and sew back to the edge, then turn and hem 
in the usual way ; and when the other edge is reached, 
turn and sew back an inch or two. This prevents cor- 
ners from ripping. The same may be done with towels, 
handkerchiefs, napkins, etc. Draw a thread to cut 
those things even. 

Begin collar and skirt bands at the center and baste 
toward each end. 

Little arm holes of underwaists have much better 
shape if sewed both ways when hemming as the collar 

Bleached flour sacks make good strong little waists. 
Sew little squares of goods doubled on each side for 
pinning the garters. 

It a skirt turns out so that an even hem cannot be 


turned at bottom, simply hem a ruffle and put it on 
underneath without gathering. It will appear like a 
hem on the right side. The uneven hem should be 
blind stitched. Iron separately as you would a ruffle. 

Rip seams with a razor and if there is no one to 
hold one side of the goods, pin it to something firm 
by means of a strong cloth band. 

To remove old paper from the walls, wet well two 
or three times with a large paint brush and luke warm 
water, being careful not to let dry between soakings. 

For paste for scrap books' and wall paper see Boiled 
Starch, using flour instead. 

Old pine floors can be made very artistic by scrub- 
bing well, sand-papering a little and painting or stain- 
ing to match rugs, then finish with a thin coat of floor 
varnish. Varnish is easily applied if sufficiently 
thinned with turpentine; and paint should be kept 
thinned with turpentine and oil. One thin coat of each 
is sufficient unless very light colored, then use two 
coats of paint. It is well to prime that part of the 
floor under the rugs as it helps to save the rugs from 

One coat of paint makes them sanitary, while two 
coats, of the right color, make them very artistic. Com- 
mon house paint can be used. Write to companies for 
little booklets on decorating. The floor varnish will 
save it, and if washed carefully with moderately cold 
water and soft scrubbing brush occasionally, it will 
last for ten years. The weekly cleaning only requires 
wiping off with a soft dust cloth which may be tied on 
the broom, or dusted as furniture. 

The large cracks in floors should be well filled with 
soft putty moulded with a few drops of paint oil or 
pounded with the hammer on glass. After filling, 
smooth with the finger and scrape off clean on each 
side of the crack. The small cracks can be filled with 


paint. Some use melted paraffin where a room is 
always cool. 

The floor must be thoroughly dry before painting 
and each coat should be dry before applying the next. 
If wanted very nice, sand-paper again after first coat 
is dry. It will dry in one day but does not harden for 
a week or so. If brushes get hard, put in strong hot 
"Gold Dust" suds over night. 

Two large nails placed across the top of a lamp 
chimney is a good way of warming milk at night for 
the baby or an invalid.^ It can be placed on a little 
table near the bed, making it unnecessary to get up 
in the night. 

To prevent kettles from boiling over, use an old 
fashioned loaf cake tin that opened m the center, for 
a cover. 

Those who are not very strong and are unable to 
do their own washing or hire it done, can heat a kettle 
of suds each morning and do what little they can in 
half an hour. In this way they will not use up their 
strength and the washing will not accumulate. 

If there is no cream for coffee, scald the milk. 


The proportion would be one pound of medium 
brown sugar to two of good barrel salt and one ounce 
of black pepper ground fine. The amount here given 
is sufficient for twenty-five pounds, pork or beef. 

The Process 

If quantity is small, use a granite dish pan for the 
curing. Spread mixture an inch thick over all the sur- 
face, with rind down, changing each day that every 
part of the meat may receive its due allowance, add- 
ing more sugar, salt and pepper each day for sixteen 


days. Then take out, wash, scrape, and wipe clean 
and dry, and smoke. (This is excellent for dried beef.) 

Smoking Process 

The meat can be hung to the top of a clean flour 
barrel (bottom upside down) or a box, by strong twine 
in several ways. Then place so that smoke may be 
directed to it by means of a link or two of stove pipe 
laid in a sort of trench in the ground. 

The sweet-corn cobs may be saved from the table 
during the year and dried for smoking. Some have 
excellent success with dried sawdust and pieces of old 
apple tree. 

Do not throw off the brine that collects in the pan. 
The process of curing takes about sixteen days and 
smoking from ten days to four weeks, according to 
size. They may be packed in oats to keep or wrapped 
in clean cloth or paper and kept in clean leached dry 
ashes. In smoking be careful never to get too hot. 
This meat is firm and sweet and will keep almost any 
length of time if cured in winter and allowed to dry 
by hanging up and then properly protected from flies. 

If the meat is wanted red, use saltpeter, one-fourth 
ounce {}i oz.) to the quantity given. (I never use 
this as I do not think it so good.) 

Rub steak well with black pepper if the weather is 
warm and you have no ice on hand. 

Boil bones for meat gravy if you have nothing else ; 
gravy is very saving as well as tasty and appetizing. 


Wash the grapes. Some stem them and some do 
not. Press the juice and strain through a cheese cloth 
bag, but do not press. To each gallon of juice use 
from 1 to I'j/i gallons of water. Then to each gallon 


of this mixture add 1 pound (2 cups) of sugar. Mix 
well and let stand in open jars for about four weeks, 
skimming once each day. Then drop in the white of 
an egg, unbeaten, and let stand another week, skim- 
ming if necessary. Then strain and bottle and leave 
the bottles uncorked for a week or they will break. 

(Small Quantity) 

The cream should be well ripened but not allowed 
to get too old so as to develop bad flavors. It should 
be well stirred about twice a day. When ready for 
churning it should be cooled to between 60 and 65 
degrees F., and then churned. When the butter has 
gathered in lumps, and the buttermilk drained off, it 
should be washed in clear cold water, then salted and 
worked. The proportion of salt is one ounce salt to 
one pound butter. Butter should be worked only 
enough to mix in the salt and work out most of the 
water — aiming to make it smooth, but not like salve. 
It is greatly improved by letting stand twelve hours 
and press out a little more water before packing.* 

Have everything sterile, even the hands. The room 
or cellar where it is made should be rather' cool and 
free from dust and odors. A cake bowl and spoon 
makes a fair churn till one has better. 

Butter and milk kept in an icebox must be kept so 
they will not absorb the odors of fruits and other, 
things, especially melons and bananas. 

An icebox should have a thorough, careful cleans- 
ing at least once a week, and in the meantime, if any- 
thing is spilled in it, it should be wiped up immedi- 
ately, thereby helping to keep it sterile. Everything 
should be thoroughly cooled before putting into the 

•Some very careful housewives work butter three times before packing; 
this is a good method where butter must be kept for some time. It must 
stand twelve hours between each working, thus packing twenty-four hours 
after churning. 


icebox. A good grade of paraffin paper, jelly glasses 
with covers, nice clean lard pails with covers, and 
many other things may be used to keep things nice 
in the icebox. 


Do not wash eggs, as it removes part of the natural 
coating and opens the way for germs to enter, which 
spoil the eggs. Their keeping depends on sterilization 
as well as other things preserved. If boiled eggs are 
wanted after preserving in this manner, pierce the 
shell carefully with a strong needle. Eggs must be 
strictly fresh. - To one cup of water glass add ten to 
fourteen cups of cold sterile water. Pack the eggs 
in a jar and pour Solution over them, covering well. 
Keep in a cool, dark, dry place. 


1. Do not light the burner and then fill the tea 
kettle afterward ; fill it first, and lower the flame after 
it is hot enough. 

2. Do not leave the flame high after the vegetable 
or meat has begun to boil. 

3. After the oven is well heated it will bake just as 
well and even better with the excess of flame turned 

4. Matches are cheaper than gas. 

5. Do not fold clothes till through ironing, and 
when irons are well heated, lower the flame. 

6. Bread may be dried for crumbs and a stale loaf 
freshened, after removing a roast or anything else, 
while the oven is cooling. 

7. It is best to roast enough for two or three days 
and also boil potatoes enough for two days, as the 
leftover dishes require but little cooking. 

8. Rinse cooking utensils and any sticky dishes 

•Eggs may be put in a wire basket, dipped for % minute in boiling water^ 
cooUOt and packed in oats with the imall end down. 


with cold water, then finish with one kettle of good 
hot water. 

9. Use cozies or old towels wherever possible. 
10. Aim to bake as many things as possible at the 
same time. 

A little flour or corn starch (>^ or 1 teaspoonful) is 
excellent to mix with the sugar in making custards, 
squash and custard pie, cream of wheat pudding and 
many dishes where one can afford to use only one or 
two eggs; A suggestion of either is nice in cocoa. 
Either one is nice to thicken all kinds of soup. They 
can be used in making table syrup and color with 
mapeline; it won't be so clear, but requires much less 

Grated lemon rind is excellent for flavoring pies, 
custards, sauces, and many other things. 

Keep things off the floor as much as possible. Floor 
dust is very injurious to all kinds of articles, especially 
satchels, shoes, etc., even if the floor is dusted every 


Besides the ordinary furniture, the bedroom is not 
complete without match safe, match scratcher and 
match receiver, scrap basket, (a pretty screen may be 
made to match the room to hide the washstand which 
is usually in bedrooms where there is no bathroom in 
the house), a little table or desk. 

Keep the toilet articles clean and dry, being careful 
not to let them drip on floor when emptying. Keep a 
few old clean towels near by for protecting the floor 
by catching the drip on the outside, or turn upside 
down on newspapers after emptying. Scald at least 
once a week; every day where there is sickness. 

Candles are nice for night use, especially where there 
are children; they also add to the appearance of the 
dresser. There should be two sets of covers for dres- 


ser (chiffonier), washstand and table, which can be 
made from bleached flour sacks and neatly hemmed. 
When starched and ironed they are simple and pretty. 

Avoid "stuffiness" or "curiosity shop" effect in any 
room ; it means too much labor and is not so sanitary 
as the simply furnished room, nor so pretty. 

If a room has no molding, paste on bands of cloth 
and over that paste ribbon or strips cut from pretty 
cloth or paper to match the room. This will be strong 
enough to hold tacks for small pictures. 

Neat little folding scrap baskets may be made of 
pasteboard covered with wall paper and tied together 
with tape or ribbon to match the room. The use of 
these trains children in habits of neatness, daintiness, 

Shelve the closets up to the ceiling above where the 
clothes hang; make use of all the space possible. 

Mince meat can be made without meat by using 
more chopped fruit, especially lemons and oranges, 
raisins, currants, apples, etc. 

Lemons can be kept for some time in a jar of cold 
water in a cool place. 

No matter what your position, though a servant, 
win the esteem and love of all by cheerfulness, kind- 
ness, truthfulness, cleanliness of both yourself and 
work, and the practice, always, of the golden rule. 

Place hooks in kitchen and closets where children 
can reach them easily. Put hangers on all their clothes 
and initials when the garments look alike. For nice 
pieces they should be taught the use of patent hangers. 
Teach them to hang up and get their own clothes. 
This teaches them pride, individuality, neatness and 
system. Apply the same principle to the care of toys. 

No matter what your work, have a system and strive 
to m.ake that system perfect, saving both steps and 
time. One can save themselves and yet do their work 
well. Good systems can be learned from books, etc. 


There is nothing gained by slighting work if you 
want to save labor. 

Conscientious and faithful girls are never out of em- 
ployment, either at home or away from home. Much 
time can be used profitably in good reading. Avoid 
gadding and idle gossip. Be pleasant and useful no 
matter where. 

To waste carelessly is almost as wrong as to steal. 

Never break a promise to children, or frighten 
them with stories or make them afraid of the dark, or 
help them to conceal wrong-doing, whether you be the 
mother, nurse or servant. 

A servant should never consider his or her work 
degrading unless made so by themselves. There is 
no work more honorable, as the health and happiness 
of the family depend on them. Being on the lookout 
for slights is an evidence of vanity, laziness, dishon- 
esty and other faults. Whoever looks down upon one 
because of honest labor done conscientiously is not 
worth minding. 

Open the doors for three or four minutes on a very 
cold day and you will be surprised how much quicker 
the house warms up and how much warmer you feel. 
It should be done a few times during the day, thus 
changing impure air for fresh. 

Some are very successful roasting potatoes in the 
upper part of a self-feeding coal heater. The coal 
should be little more than half way down ; also broiling 
and roasting meat underneath the^repot after having 
shaken down the ashes and thorough cleaned the ash 
pan — a broiler and dripping pan should be used. 

When one has to get along with one fire, which is 
usually the kitchen fire, then, when dressing the chil- 
dren, comb their hair over newspapers, being careful 
of the stray hair. 

When the hair flies and seems impossible to comb, 



rub a clean, damp wash-rag over it or the comb, which 
will control the electricity, being careful not to wet 
the hair. 

No matter what place you occupy in the family, 
whether one of the family or not, always be on time 
to your meals. It shows respect for the one who pre- 
pares the meal and saves lots of expense, time and 
trouble. Promptness is one of the means of success 
through life. 

A few of the 
means of edu- 
cating one's 


We learn to do 

by doing. 


Right kind of clubs. 

Library Books. ^ 

Magazines. >■ All must be good. 

Newspapers. J 

Good conversation. 


Letters to Marion Harland or other good, re- 
liable sources. 

Reading the answers to others' letters through 
the papers. 

Thinking and planning. 

Attending good lectures at least three or four 
times a year. 

Asking questions. 

Willing to be corrected. 

Consideration for others. 


It is well to read more than you can make 
use of and a little beyond one's under- 

French Dressing makes sardines very palatable, as 
well as easier to digest. 

Work a little salt into oleomargarine; it will keep 
better. It should be kept as carefully as butter. 

The uppers of clean, old stockings and socks make 
good dish-cloths. It is well to have a half dozen dish- 
cloths in use, changing every day and treating the 
soiled ones to the weekly wash as other clothes. They 
should always be dried before putting in the laundry. 
Anything but a foul dish-cloth or mop-rag. 


Some save and hem the large salt sacks, that is the 
eight-pound sacks, which are also very nice. 

Canvas gloves come handy for doing many things 
in and around the house, and a bathing or gymnasium 
suit is handy to don while house cleaning. 

A pinch of salt, or a little more, is very good in all 
kinds of pudding sauces and cakes. 

A little sugar i_s excellent in almost all vegetables 
and vegetable soups ; it improves corn, either in the 
ear or can. Flour the hands while handling raisins 
to keep them from being sticky. 

Turn the chopping bowl upside down when putting 
away, to prevent cracking; also wash-tubs. 

One can get cooking to such a point that, by know- 
ing how to get all the food value out of food, so that 
every possible amount can be digested, she can have 
the working members of the family properly nourished 
on from ten to twelve cents a day each. 

There is a great deal of waste, not only of the food 
itself but by careless methods of cooking through 
which too great a percentage of that taken into the 
system cannot be used by it; this is a waste of both 
money and strength and when practiced too long re- 
sults in sickness. 

To Make "Cozies." — Cut two or three thicknesses 
of flour sacks (though old wool cloth is better, being 
a non-conductor of heat), using the cover of the kettle 
for a pattern. Quilt them together just a little bit. 
Then sew a straight piece made of two or three thick- 
nesses, also, around the edge of the cover piece, leav- 
ing it open at one side, so as to slip easily over the 
kettle and pin after putting on. This straight piece 
should be at least two or three inches from the stove 
so as not to catch fire. 

One needs but very little fuel with these, while the 


cooking is more scientific and delicious, but, like the 
fireless cooker, they require time. 

A very low lighted burner on a gas stove, with this, 
would cook cereal over night, but risky unless lots 
of open windows. 

The fireless cooker is excellent for cooking cereals 
over night, stewed chicken, canning fruits, etc. 

Heavy "cozies" can also be made to protect the milk 
from freezing that is delivered early in the morning, 
and buckwheat set over night. A heavy pad should 
be made to put under these protecting from cold under- 

When you read items of emergencies, cut out and 
paste on the front of your cook book or scrap book. 

A brick is capable of absorbing almost a pound of 
water, which is the reason for brick houses being 
damp. Stone is not so damp. Neither one should be 
plastered on the bare wall. 

Personal habits of both manners and cleanliness 
should be taught to the child, beginning as early as 
two years of age. This is one of the great responsibil- 
ities of a mother, as it means so much for the child's 
success when he has to fight the world's battles. If 
she does not train him he will learn from others, much 
to his or her humiliation. 


Last, but not least, every housewife should encour- 
age the planting and good care of trees, whether 
owner of the property or not, and help others to care 
for their trees by teaching the little folks of their great 
use and beauty, so that they will not ruin them. Trees 
should never be planted too close to a building. Large 
evergreen hedges are a great protection to farmers, and 
with other hedges, are useful as well as ornamental. 

*"''WheTi we plant a tree we are doing what we can to make our planet 
8 more whoic^~-~-» -ajad iiaQriierfllace for those who come after \iS'"~~OH'iJer 
Wendell Holmes. 

0|} « 



The writer has planted about six hundred trees in ten 
years, by getting the seedHngs from the nursery and 
keeping them well freed from weeds and grass during 
the first two years. Seedlings only cost about 50 
cents per hundred and are easy to plant and take care 
of. One can do Arbor Day duty two or three weeks 
ahead, or much can be done the previous autumn. 

"O, Woodman, spare that tree; 

Touch not a single bough," 

What They Signify 

January . . . Garnet Constancy. 

February. . . Amethyst 

j Sincerity 

I Contentment 

March Bloodstone 

April Diamond . . 

May Emerald . . 

( Arrnf^ ) Health 

j Wise. . . . . . 

( Brave 

Innocence , 



Love, Nobility 
of Mind 

August I ^^JonsTone : ( Conjugal Bliss. 

September . 


November. , 

December . , 


Hope . . . 

Topaz Friendship 

j Success . . . 
( Happiness. 


Wild Rose. 



Easter Lily. 

Lily of the Valley. 


Pond Lily. 





1st Year — Cotton 

2nd Year — Paper 

3rd Year — Leather 

5th Year — Wooden 

7th Year— Woolen 
10th Year— Tin 
12th Year — Silk, Fine Linen 

15th Year — Crystal 
20th Year— China 
25th Year— Silver 
30th Year— Pearl 
40th Year— Ruby 
50th Year— Gold 
75th Year — Diamond 



White — Light, purity, innocence, faith, joy and life. 

Red — Signifies fire, divine love, royalty. 

Blue — Truth, constancy and fidelity. 

Yellow — The symbol of the sun of marriage and faithfulness. 

Green — Hope and victory. 

Violet — Love and truth, passion and suffering. 

Purple — Good and true. 

Black — Despair, darkness, earthliness, wickedness and death. 


Bachelor's Buttons Celibacy 

Bluebell Constancy 

Chrysanthemum Love, Truth 

Daisy ■ Innocence 

Forget-me-not True love 

Golden Rod Precaution 

Lily Purity, Sweetness 

Lily of the Valley Return of happiness 

Nasturtium Patriotism 

Pansy Thoughts 

Poppy Consolation, Forgetfulness 

Rose Love 

Shamrock Light-heartedness 

Sweet Pea Delicate pleasure 

Tulip Fame 

Violet Faithfulness, Modesty 

Thistle Austerity, Retaliation 

"France has the lily, England the rose, 
Everybody knows where the shamrock grows ; 
Scotland has the thistle that grows on the hill, 
America's emblem — the violet (golden-rod) still." 

Monday's child is fair of face; 
Tuesday's child is full of grace; 
Wednesday's child is merry and glad ; 
Thursday's child is sorry and sad ; 
Friday's child is loving and giving ; 
And Saturday's child must work for his living ; 
While the child that is born on the Sabbath day 
Is blithe and bonny and good and gay. 



Suggested to encourage the progress of the home- 
makers, children and_ the young folks starting out on 
life's great battle, and, having started, to keep up the 
fight. These all bear upon your work either directly 
or indirectly and many upon one's health and happi- 

I have selected these from three good sized note 
books of quotations, which I have collected from the 
books I have read for about twenty years. Some are 
reproduced from memory, but I can't remember the 
author's name. 


"Comes a letter from my mother, bidding me to bravely strive, 
And within my breast another precious day finds hope alive; 
With new courage I'll endeavor to perform as best I may; 
No temptation whatsoever shall appeal to me today ; 
She is confidently hoping and her hope shall be my strength; 
I shall cease my timid groping and reward her faith at length. 
Linger for a moment, brother, ere you bid your hopes adieu ; 
Have you not somewhere a mother who has hoped and prayed 

for you? 
Though a hundred times defeated, can you weakly turn aside, 
Knowing that she shall be cheated of her hopes and of her pride? 

Author Unknown. 

"It is not work that kills men; it is worry. You can hardly 
put more upon a mm than he can bear. Worry is rust upon the 
blade. It is not the revolution that destroys the-machinery, but 
the friction." — Beecher. 

"God nothing does, nor suffers to be done, but thou thyself 
wouldst do, if thou couldst see the end of all events as well as 


"Success in life is not gained by never making a mistake, 
but by never making the same mistake twice." 

"The no-account man doesn't believe in keeping accounts." 

"Whatever may lie beyond us, 
The lesson that earth has to give, 
Is to learn how to love divinely^ 
And then you have learned to live." 

— Unknown. 

"Those who toil bravely are the strongest ; 
The humble and poor become great; 
And from those brown-handed children 
Shall grow mighty rulers of State." 
— Mary H. Krout in "Little Brown Hands." 

'Wise are those who know what to remember and what to forget." 

— Unknown. 

"Much beer never brought good cheer." 

— Farm Journal. 

"They live longest who remember to let well enough alone." 

— '-Record Herald. 

Backward, turn backward, O Time, in your flight; 
Make me a child again just for tonight. 

Give me the cast iron stomach I had 
When I was naught but a freckled-face lad. 

Feed me on.dainties my mother could make — 
Give me the flaky, old time buckwheat cake 
Smothered in syrup with butter spread o'er, 
Bake me a dozen and hurry up more ; 
Make up the batch of the doughnuts I knew. 
Sprinkled with sugar so bountifully, too ; 
Caraway cookies and hot ginger bread. 
Thickly with mother's best marmalade spread." 

— Los Angeles Times. 

Selfishness is the thing that will turn the heart into an ash' heap. 

"Better believe yourself a dunce and work away than a genius 
and be idle." — "Success" Magazine. 


"You should forgive many things in others, nothing in yourself." 

— Ansontits. 

"He prayeth best who loveth best 

All things, both great and small; 
For the dear God who loveth us. 
He made and loveth all." 


"Now I lay me down to sleep — 
Pray the Lord my soul to keep" — 
Sweet the chorus, soft and low, 
Of the prayer I once did know. 
Tumbling into waiting beds, 
Hiding now their little heads ; 
Older children have their fears 
With the darkening of the years. 
Little faces by the bed, 
Little hands upon the spread, 
Little roguish eyes all closed, 
Little naked feet exposed. 
Mother, lead them in their praise; 
Mother, teach them heavenly ways ; 
Mother, as they go to sleep, 
Pray the Lord their souls to keep. 

— New York Times. 

'If a man will only watch himself as he would an enemy, he 
would seldom get into trouble." 


As through the land at eve we went 
And plucked the ripened ears. 
We fell out, my wife and I — 
Oh, we fell out, I know not why, 
And kissed again with tears. 

For when we came where lies the child 
We lost in other years, 
There above the little grave, 
Oh ; there above the little grave, 
W^e kissed again with tears." 

— Alfred Tennyson. 

There are people who are too independent to earn a living so 
long as they can sponge it." — Unknown. 


Book Mark Motto— "Mark ye pure and goodly thoughts." 

Motto for a rose jar— "Sweets to the sweet." 

Blessed is the hand that prepares a pleasure for a child, for 
there is no saying when and where it may bloom forth — Jerrold. 

"Work without, rest is like bread without yeast ; it is heavy." 

"It is well to train the mind to think accurately and the hand 
to respond quickly." 

"People who give more space in memory to their failures than 
they do to their successes generally go to early graves, and are 
more missed than regretted by their acquaintances." — Unknown. 

"Men who behave themselves are never afraid of their wives." 

"Oh, mother, so wearied, discouraged. 
Worn out with the cares of the day — 
You often grow cross and impatient. 
Complain of the noise and the play. 
For the day brings so many vexations, 
So many things going amiss ; 
But, mother, whatever may vex you, 
Send the children to bed with a kiss." 

Anonymous — Mother's Magazine. 

"Adversity is sometimes hard upon a man; but for one man 
who can stand prosperity there are a hundred that will stand 
adversity." — Thomas Carlyle. 

"Happiness can only be found in virtue; virtue cannot exist 
'without liberty; and the seat of liberty is good laws." 

—"Scottish Chiefs."— 

"Blessed are they which put their trust in God." 

— "Scottish Chiefs." — 

"What you can do, or dream you can, begin it. 
Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it." 

"Dost thou love Life ! Then do not squander Time, for that 
is the stuff life is made of." 

— Benj. Franklin, "Poor Richard's Almanac." 

"Lost time is never found." — Franklin. 


"But pleasures are like poppies spread; 
You seize the flower, its bloom is shed; 
Or like the snow falls in the river, 
A moment white, then melts forever; 
Or like the borealis race, 
That flit ere you can point their place ; 
Or like the rainbow's lovely form 
Evanishing amid the storm." 

— Robert Burns. 

"All the world's a fleeting stage 
For man's illusion given. 
Deceitful shine, deceitful show — 
There is nothing true but heaven." 

— Thomas Moore. 

"And man, whose heaven erected face 
The smiles of love adorn, 
Man's inhumanity to man 
Makes countless thousands mourn." 

— Burns. 

"Do naught today, thou mayst regret tomorrow, 
For though today may die, its ghost will linger 
And haunt thee with a ceaseless sigh of sorrow. 
And point remorse with an accusing finger." 

— Unknown. 


"Discouraged and weary I sat me down 

On my porch, the other day. 
Weary of life and its ceaseless toil. 
Too weary to sing or pray. 

"I saw not the beauty of earth or sky, 

But all seemed a sombre gray ; 
'And heaven is far, far off;' thought I, 
'And the angels — where are they?' 

"Why do my burdens heavier grow? 
Why am I so oppressed? 
Where is the help I am needing so? 
Where is the promised rest? 

"Ah ! doubts were crowding thick and fast, 

My cares seemed heavier to be ; 
And faith and God, and all things else, 
Seemed slipping away from me. 


"But air at once there seemed to stand 

By my side a Shining One ; 
His raiment was pearly and flittering white. 
And his face shown like the sun. 

" 'Why art thou so anxious, weary one, 
To lay the burdens down? 
For only those who bear the cross 
Shall wear the victor's crown.' 

" 'Dost thou not know that only those 
Who faint not by the way. 
Shall rest at last with Christ's weary ones, 
Through one long endless day?' 

"And then he seemed to float away. 

And up through the azure blue, 

And I was left sitting there alone. 

But life wore a different hue. 

"For I was discotiraged no longer, 

And heaven seemed nearer to me; 
Again I arose to life's duties, 
Feeling both happy and free. 

"Knowing that if we are faithful 

And bear what God gives us to bear, 
We at last shall sit down in his kingdom. 
And be resting with Jesus there." 

— Unknown. 

Sometime, when all life's lessons have been learned, 

And sun and stars forevermore have set, — 
The things which our weak judgments here have spurned. 

The things o'er which we wept with lashes wet, — 
Will flash before us out of life's dark night, — 

As stars shine most in deeper tints of blue, 
And we shall see how all God's plans were right, — 

And how what seemed to be reproof was love most true." 

— Unknown. 

"Some women, in marrying, demand all and give all; with 
good men they are the happy ; with base men they are the broken- 

"Some demand everything and give little ; with weak men they 
are tyrants ; with strong men they are the divorced. 

"Some demand little and give all ;with congenial souls they are 
already in heaven ; with uncongenial they are soon in their graves. 

"Some give little and demand little; they are the heartless — 
and they bring neither the joy of life nor the peace of death." 

— "The Choir Invisible." (?) 


"Shattered ideals— what hand shatters them but one's own?" 
"Joy comes, grief goes, we know not how." 

— James Russell Lowell. 

"Virtue alone is sweet society." 

"It is distrust of God to be troubled about what is to come; 
impatience against God to be troubled about what is present, and 
anger against God to be troubled about what is past." 

"Never a tear bedims the eye, 
That time and patience will not dry. 
Never a lip is curved with pain. 
That cannot be kissed into smiles again." 

— Bret Harte. 

"The poor, oppressed, honest man, 

Had never, sure, been born 
Had there not been some recompense 
To comfort those that mourn." 

— Burns. 

"Putting off an easy thing makes it hard, and putting off a 
hard one makes it impossible." — John Graham. 

"You can never read bad literature too little or good literature 
too much. Bad books are intellectual poison; they destroy the 
mind." — Schopenhauer's Essay on Books and Reading. 

Some good old sayings: — "Honesty is the best policy." 

"Where there's a will there's always a way." "A stitch in time 

saves nine." " 'Tis never too late to learn." "Better late than 

never." "Courage is half the battle." "Things done by halves 

are never done right." 


"Lean hard and let me feel the pressure of thy care. I know , 
thy burden, for I fashioned it, poised it on My own hand and 
made its weight precisely that which I saw best for thee. And 
when I placed it on thy shrinking form, I said, 'This burden 
shall be Mine notthhte.' So shall I keep within my circling arms 
— the child of My own love. Here lay it down nor fear to 
weary Him who made, upholds and guides the Universe. Yet 
closer come — thou art not near enough. Thy care, thyself, lay 
both on me that I may feel My child reposing on My heart. 
Thou lovest Me? I doubt it not; then, loving Me, lean hard." 


"A home is what a woman makes it." 

"The sweeping of a room may be done to the glory of God." 

— An ancient hymn writer. 

"A thing of beauty is a joy forever." 

"There is no fireside, howsoe'er defended but has one vacant 
chair." — Longfellow. 

"He that will not live happily anywhere will live happily 
nowhere." — Tolstoi. 

"Little minds are subdued by misfortune; great minds rise 
above it" — Washington Irving. 

"Do not put off until tomorrow that which you can do today." 

— Benjamin Franklin. 

"For of all sad words of tongue or pen, 
The saddest are these — 'It might have been.' " 

—John G. Whittier. "Maud Muller." 

"Sin has many tools, but a lie is the handle which fits them 
all." — Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

"Live plainly if you must, 
Guard what is yours from harm ; 

But don't, if you can help it, 
Put a mortgage on the farm." 

I think that every mother's son 

And every father's daughter 
Should drink, at least till twenty-one, 

Just nothing but cold water. 
And after that they might drink tea, 

But nothing any stronger. 
If all folks would agree with me 

They'd live a great deal longer. 

"The nearer you come into relation with a person, 
The more necessary do tact and courtesy become." 

—Oliver Wendell Holmes, 

"We get back our mete as we measure, 
We cannot do wrong and feel right; 

Nor can we give pain and get pleasure, 
For justice avenges each slight." 

— Alice Cary. 

"Words give wind to thoughts." 


"If eyes were made for seeing, 

Then beauty is its own excuse for being." 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

"Behind the dim unknown 
Standeth God, within the shadow 
Keeping watch above his own." 

— James Russell Lowell. 

"Hearts, like apples, are hard and sour 
Till crushed with pain's resistless power, 
And yield their juices rich and bland 
To none but sorrow's heavy ha^nd." 

— /. G. Holland. 

"You can fool all of the people some of the time, you can 
fool some of the people all of the time, but you cannot fool all 
of the people all of the time." — Abraham Lincoln. 

"There is so much bad in the best of us 
And so much good in the worst of us, 
That it doesn't behoove any of us 
To talk about the rest of us." 

— Lincoln. (?) 

"When wealth is lost, nothing is lost; 
When health is lost, something is lost; 
When character is lost, all is lost." 

— Wall Motto in a German School. 

"A straw may turn the current of a mighty river." 
"A man shows his Real Self in the way he treats a child." 

— "Health and Happiness." 

"He who by the plough would thrive 
Himself must either hold or drive." 

"When house and lands and gold are spent, 
Then learning is most excellent. 

"We should rather be wronged than to do wrong." — Pulseford. 

"Keep working, 'tis wiser than sitting aside. 

Never, oh, never say 'Fail'." 

"He sings to the wide world and she to her nest — 
In the nice ear of Nature, which song is the best?" 

— "Vision of Sir Launfal." 

"He that is thy friend indeed. 
He will help thee in thy need." 

— Shakespeare — "The Passionate Pilgrim." 


"'Tis not the many oaths that make the 'truth, 
But the plain single vow, that is vowed true." 

—"All's Well that Ends Well." 

"For, 'tis the mind that makes the body rich ; 
And as the sun breaketh through the darkest clouds, 
. So honor peereth in the meanest habit." 

— Shakespeare — "Taming of the Shrew." 

"There is no time so miserable but a man may be true." 

— Shakespeare. 

" 'Tis education forms the common mind ; 
Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined." 

-^Pope — "Moral Essays." 

"There is no harm in a boy being a blacksmith nor in a girl 
knowing how to make a loaf of bread." — Prof. Monaghan. 

"Our best is bad nor bears the test, still it should be our very 
best." — Browning. 

"O ! It is excellent to have a giant's strength, but it is tyran- 
nous to use it like a giant." — "The Abuse of Authority." 

"An idle reason lessens the weight of the good ones you gave 
before." — Jonathan Swift — "Thoughts on Various Subjects." 

"There is a special providence in the fall of a sparrow." 

— Shakespeare — "Hamlet." 

"My heart leaps up when I behold 
A rainbow in the sky; 
So was it when my life began, 
So is it now I am a man; 
So may it be when I grow old. 
Or let me die." 


"I would not enter on my list of friends the man who need- 
lessly sets foot upon a worm." 

— Wm. Cowper, "Mercy to Animals." 

"Full many a gem of purest ray serene. 
The dark, unfathomed caves of ocean bear, 

Full many a flower is born to blush unseen 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air." 
— Thomas Gray, "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard." 


"Let all the ends thou aimest at be thy country's, thy God's 
and truth's." 

"Love God and love thy neighbor. On these two command^ 
ments hang all the laws of the prophets." — Shakespeare. 

"What is failure? It is only a spur 

To a man who receives it right, 
And it makes the spirit within him stir 

To get up once more and fight! 
If you never have failed, it's an even gfuess 
You never have won a high success." 

— Edmund Vance Cooke. 

"Daily, with souls that cringe and plot, 
We Sinais climb and know it not." 

— Lowell, "Vision of Sir Launfal." 

"Every girl should walk hand in hand between two guardian 

"Remember thy last end and thou wilt never sin." 

— Farm Journal. 

"Better than gold is a peaceful home, 
Where all the fireside characters come — 
The shrine of love, the heaven of life, 
Hallowed by mother, or sister, or wife, 
However humble the home may be, 
Or tried with sorrow by heaven's decree. 
The blessings that never were bought or sold, 
And center there, are better than gold." 

— "Mothers' Magasine." 

"He is never alone who is accompanied with noble thoughts." 
"Read anything half an hour a day and in ten years you will 
be learned." — Emerson. 

"For every evil under the sun there is a remedy." 

"All things that are worth while doing are not easy." 

— Dr. J. N. McCormick. 

*"It requires more genius to be a good housekeeper, a good 
mother and a good homemaker than it does to manage a bank 
or run a factory" 

"The college girl as a housekeeper, I want to say, judging from 
personal observation, is a better housekeeper and a better home- 
maker because she went to college." 

— Catherine Waugh McCuUoch. 

♦Let not this extract, though true, discourage the self-educated home- 
maker, who will find much pleasure in educating and improving herself in 
her great life work. 


"One good mother is worth a hundred schoolmasters." 

— Herbert. 


"They do me wrong who say I come no more, 
When once I knock and fail to find you in; 

For every day I stand outside your door, 
And bid you wake and rise to fight and win." 

— Judge Walter Malone. 


"Master of human destinies am I." 

— Senator Ingalls. 

"A mother is a mother still, 
The holiest thing alive." 

— Coleridge. 

"Live as if you live always, 
Live as if you die tomorrow." 

"Trouble follers sin as sho' as fever follers a chill." 

— An old Negro Prgverb. 

"Give to me the making of the mothers of men, and I care 
not who makes the laws of the nation." — Napoleon. 

"In the hills of life there are two trails. One lies along the 
higher sunlit fields, where those who journey see afar, and the 
light lingers even when the sun is down; and one leads to the 
lower ground, where those who travel, as they go, look always 
over their shoulders with eyes of dread, and gloomy shadows 
gather long before the day is done." 

—"The Shepherd of the Hills." 

—Harold Bell Wright. 

"Dear one, if I should die tonight. 

If kindly death should come — blow out the light. 

And say the game was done, 

And you should stand 

And touch my dead cold face with loving hand 

What would your heart say then? 

Would you with tears think over all the struggles of the past 

And realise what you have never understood. 

How hard I've toiled 

And always for your good? 

And would you bend and kiss my marble brow. 


And whisper, "Dear, I understand things now." 

Or would you say with others who know naught 

Of all the weary battles I have fought — 

"He was a failure." 

Somehow, I can't think, 

That you who, through the years, have seen me drink 

Life's bitterness. 

That you, who watched me quaff 

While I choked back the sob and forced the laugh. 

Ah, no, you wouldn't say it, would you dear, 

"He was a failure." 

My dead ear would hear 

And tho' I could not speak or see, _ ^ — , 

The words would haunt me through eternity 

Dear one, if I should die tonight, 

I love to think that you, with tear-dimmed sight. 

Would kneel beside my corpse and kneeling there, 

Kiss for the last time my lips, my cheek, my hair. 

And with no thought of failure or success. 

Whisper, "Good-bye, Good-bye, My Happiness," 

If I lay dead tonight. 

That sweet farewell 

Would bring me peace — 

Aye, tho' I were in Hell." 

"A good-bye kiss is a little thing, 

With your hand on the door to go ; 
But it takes the venom out of the sting 
Of a thoughtless word of a cruel fling 
That you made an hour ago." 

— Frank H. Sweet. 

"Like ivy, woman's love will cling 
Too often round a worthless thing." 

"Earth's noblest thing — a woman perfected." — Senator Ingalls. 

"How hard would be our hearts but for our hardships and 

"Something attempted, something done, 
Has eSivned a night's repose." 

— Longfellow. 

"The great men who have accomplished the great works or 
great good in the world have always been optimkl:. never 
pessimists." — Governor Hoch. 

"It takes a live fish to swim up stream; any dead one can 
float down." 


"Wealth does not consist of what you have but what you are." 

— Judge Belden. 

"Thought is the force with which we build, for thoughts are 
forces." — "In Tune with the Infinite." 

"Vyhatever estimate you put upon yourself will determine the 
effectiveness of your work along any line." 

— "In Tune with the Infinite." 

"Do what your hands find to do, and do it well." 

— "In Tune with the Infinite" 

There is no chance, no destiny, no fate. 
Can circumvent, or hinder, or control 
The firm resolve of a determined soul. 

" 'Tis easy enough to be pleasant ~ 

When life flows by like a song; 
But the man worth while 
Is the man with a smile 
When everything goes dead wrong." 

— Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 

"The possession of money gives confidence, the lack of it 
self-consciousness." — Unknown. 

The three great virtues — faith, hope and charity. "And the 
greatest of these is charity." 

"Liberty is God's greatest gift to man." — Pope Leo XIII. 

"The sermon which is lived is the most eloquent of all ser- 

"It will do" has blighted many a character, blasted many a 
ship, burned down many a house and caused many a failure and 

If wisdom's ways you wisely seek, 

Five things observe with care — 
Of whom you speak, to whom you speak, 

And how, and when, and where. 

"But I say unto you. Love your enemies, bless them that 
curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them 
which despitefully use you and persecute you." — St. Matthew, 
chapter 5, verse 44. 



As for novel readers, they are countless. Is that 
the class out of which good housewives and mothers 
are made? "I will pardon your versifying art if you 
are also skilled and experienced in the art of cookery," 
wrote a certain doctor to a lady in Augsburg, who 
had sent him a poem. It is undeniable that novel read- 
ers make themselves and their famiHes unhappy. 

Avoid gossip and novel reading. 

If you are industrious you will be cheerful and 
healthy — ^your home will be pretty and attractive, com- 
fortable and pleasant. An industrious woman lays 
up great merit in Heaven, if she is in a state of grace 
and performs all her actions with a good intention. 

Our Lord says, "Take heed that you do not your 
good works before men, to-be seen by them ; otherwise 
you shall not have a reward from your Father, who is 
in Heaven." 

A good table saves many a doctor's bill. 

No one can save unless they spend less than their 
income, and anyone who exceeds his income must come 
to poverty. A calico dress that is paid for is better 
than a silk one for which one is in debt. 

He who is economical in small things may be liberal 
in great things. 

An extravagant woman will ruin the richest house. 

What is saved by the woman is as valuable as what 
is earned by the man. If she hasn't learned the secret 
of economy, she carries more out of the house in her 
apron than he brings in in his cart. 

One woman will use a great many ingredients, and 
yet supply her household with poor fare ; another will 
only need half of the quantity and yet will produce 
good, appetizing, and nourishing dishes. 

Many women drive their husbands to the public 


house, simply and solely because they will not cook 
things properly. The comfort or discomfort of a family 
depends in great measure upon the kitchen. 

It is to be particularly wished that women should 
restore milk, one of the most nutritious things, to its 
proper place. 

A certain doctor wrote to a pri6st : "If you bring into 
honor the old fashioned dish of porridge and milk you 
would do more good than if you were to establish- a 
new and excellent Constitution for the Canton." 

"I think it must somewhere be written, that the vir- 
tues of mothers shall occasionally be visited on their 
children, as well as the sins of the fathers." — Dickens. 

Napoleon : "What is wanted that the youth of France 
be well educated?" 

Madam Campan : "Good mothers."^ 
Napoleon : "Here is a system in a word." 

"Keep smiling." — Wall motto in a bank. 

"To thine own self be true and it needs must follow as .night 
the day: thou canst not be false to any man." 

"Don't send my boy where your girl can't go, 
And say, 'There's no danger for boys, you Icnow/ 
Because they all have their wild oats to sow ; 
There's no more excuse for my boy to be low, 
Than your girl. Then please don't tell him so." 

Don't send my boy where your girl can't go, 
For a boy's sin or a girl's sin is sin you know; 
And my baby's hands are as clean and white. 
And his heart is as pure as your girl's tonight. ^ 

"It is only a step from admiration to imitation." 

"By faith you can move mountains ; without faith, you cafl do 
nothing." @ 

"I expect to pass through this world but once. Any good 
thing that I can do or any kindness I can show to any fellow- 
being, let me do it now. Let me not defer or neglect it, for I 
shall not pass this way again." 


Those marked with a star can be used for convalescents. 

Apple Jack, see Short 

Cake 119 

Apple Butter 179 

^Asparagus on Toast 79 

♦Bacon 63 

Bacon, Creamed 44 

Baking Powder 291 

Baked Apples 125 

Baked Meats 46 

Beans, Baked No. 1 (Bos- 
ton) 72 

Beans, Baked No. 2 (Yan- 
kee) 72 

Beans, Stewed 73 

Beans, String and Wax... 75 

Beef, to Corn 43 

Beef, Chipped on Toast.. 211 
Beef, Corned and Cab- 
bage 43 

Beef, Dried, Creamed.... 44 

Beef Heart Stuffed 55 

*Beef Juice 20 

*Beef Tea 20 

*Beef Steak, Broiled 39 

Beef Steak, Fried 40 

Beef Steak, Smothered in 

Onions 40 

Beef Steak Stew 48 

Beef Stew 45 

Beets 74 

Biscuits, Baking Powder. .103 

Biscuits, Soda 103 

Biscuits, Raised 107 

*Blanc Mange, Irish Moss. 211 

Bonny Clabber 168 

Bread 105 

Bread, No. 1 100 

Bread, No. 2 101 


Bread, Anise 106 

Bread, Baking 99 

Bread, Brown 106 

♦Bread, Entire Wheat 104 

Bread, Graham 104 

Bread, Milk and Water.. 101 

Bread, Steamed Brown 104 

Bread, Steamed Corn 105 

*Broth, Egg 164 

*Broth, Scotch 22 

*Brown Betty ...120 

Brown Gravy (see Fried 

and Baked Meats) 85 

Buckwheat Cakes 109 

Cake, Apple and Cinna- 
mon 155 

Cake, Brides' 148 

Cake, Chocolate 147 

Cake, Devil's Food 148 

Cake, Devil's Food No. 2.149 

Cake, Johnnie 109 

Cake, One Egg 146 

Cake, Rolled Jelly 147 

Cake, Spice 147 

Cake, Spice 150 

Cake, Sponge 145 

Cake, Sunshine 148 

Cake, Wedding 149 

Cake, White 146 

Canning Fruits 178 

Canned Citron 179 

Canned Grapes 175 

Canned Plums 174 

Canned String Beans 177 

Canned Tomatoes 176 

Canned Watermelon , 179 

Catsup, Tomato 188 

*Celery 79 





Qieese, Cottage 138 

Cheese on Crackers 139 

Cheese on Toast 139 

Cheese and Macaroni 79 

Cheese Ramakins No. 1 . . . 140 
Cheese Ramakhis No. 2... 140 

Cheese Souffle ■ 140 

Cheese Straws 138 

Chicken, Spring — 61 

Chicken, Fricassed 51 

Chili Sauce 184 

Chowder, Fish 30 

Cinnamon Water 126 

*Cocoa, Phillips 165 

Cod-fish Balls 30 

*Cod-fish Creamed 29 

Creamed Fish Soup (see 

Cod-fish Balls) 30 

Coffee, Army 161 

*Coffee for Invalids 162 

Cookies, Cream No. 1 151 

Cookies, Cream No. 2.... 151 

Corn, Canned 177 

Corn, Escalloped 78 

Corn, Green (on Ear) .... 78 
*Corn Souffle (see Salmon 

Souffle) 29 

*Cream Puffs 123 

Croquettes 48 

Doughnuts, No. 1 150 

Doughnuts, No. 2 150 

♦Dressing, Dry 59 

Dressing, Wet 59 

Dried Fruits (see Prunes, 

also Canning) 187 

Duck, Mock 48 

Duck, Roast 56 

Duck, Wild 51 

Dumplings 59 

Egg, Hard Boiled 86 

*Egg, Soft Boiled 83 

*Egg Cordial 165 

*Egg, Hot Water 165 

*Egg Nog, Cold 164 

*Egg Nog, Cooked 165 

*Egg Nog, Hot 165 

*Egg Nog, Lemon 165 

*Eggs, Poached 82 

*Eggs, Raw 210 


*Eggs, Scrambled 86 

*Eggs, Scrambled, Army. . . 86 
Eggs, Scrambled, Spanish. 86 

*Eggs, Shirred 84 

*Eggs, Steamed 85 

Eggs, Stuffed (Deviled)... 87 

Eggs, Timbales 84 

Emergencies (Poison) ...287 

Filling, Caramel 154 

Fining, Fig 154 

*Flaxseed Tea and Lemon- 
ade 211 

^Floating Island (see Boiled 

Custard) 121 

Flour, Prepared 212 

Fritters (see Waffles)... 109 

Fruit, Dried 187 

*Frtiit, Drinks 168 

*Fruit Betties (see Brown 

Betty) 120 

Fondamin (see Cheese 

Souffle) 140 

*Gruel, Arrow Root .- . 167 

*Gruel, Barley 167 

*Gruel, Cracker 161" 

*Gruel, Farina 167 

Gruel, Indian Meal 166 

*Gruel, Oatmeal, No. 1....166 
*Gruel, Oatmeal, No. 2.... 166 
*Gruel, Oatmeal, No. 3 ."...166 

*Gruel, Rice 167 

Ham, Baked, No. 1 42 

Ham, Baked, No. 2 42 

Ham, Boiled 42 

Ham, Creamed on Toast . . 44\ 

Ham and Eggs 53 ^ 

Hamburg, Baked 44 

Hamburg Patties 50 

*Hash 49 

*Hominy 80 

Home-Made Baking Pow- 
der 291 

Icing, Boded ".'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 152 
Icing, Boiled .Chocolate. . .152 

Icing, Colored 154..^ 

Icing, Confectioner's Sugar 153 ' 

Icing, Easy 154 

Icing, Powdered Sugar 153 

Jams 181 




Jellies 180 

♦Jelly, Arrow Root 210 

♦Jelly, Rice 210 

Jelly, Wild Crab Apple... 181 

♦Junket 117 

♦Koumyse 163 

♦Lemonade 168 

♦Lemon Whey 163 

Liver, Fried 53 

Macaroni and Cheese 79 

Macaroni and Tomatoes .. 80 

♦Macaroni, Creamed 80 

Mackerel, Broiled 29 

Marmalade, Apple 183 

Marmalade, Grape 183 

Marmalade, Orange 182 

Marmalade, Peach 182 

Mayonaise 93 

♦Meat, Creamed 44 

Meat, Smothered in On- 
ions 53 

♦Milk, Albuminized 163 

♦Milk, Sugar of 212 

Mince Meat 186 

Mince Meat, Green Toma- 
toes 186 

Muffins, Blueberry 108 

♦Muffins, Bran 108 

Muffins, Graham 108 

Mush, Fried 110 

Mustard 114 

♦Mutton, Stewed 53 

New England Boiled Din- 
ner 42 

Noodles 60 

♦Omelet, for sick 87 

Omelet, White and Gold . . 85 
Onions, Boiled (see 

Creamed) 76 

Onions, Baked 77 

♦Onions, Creamed 76 

♦Onions, Escalloped 77 

♦Onions, Stuffed 77 

♦Orangeade 168 

♦Oysters, Escalloped . . 30 

' Pancakes, Blueberry 108 

Pancakes, French 108 

Pancakes, Scotch Ill 

Parsnips 78 


Peaches, Pickled 185 

Peanut Butter 115 

♦Pease, Dried 74 

♦Pease, Green 76 

Pickles 188 

Perch 28 

Pie Crust 130 

Pie, Apple 132 

Pie, Chocolate 133 

Pie, Cream 130 

Pie, Grape 7 133 

Pie, Pumpkin 133 

Pie, Rhubarb 132 

Pie, Squash 133 

Pie, Sweet Potato 133 

Pie, Lemon 130 

Pie, One Egg Lemon 131 

Pigs' Feet Souse 54 

Pigs' Head Cheese 54 

Pig, Roast 52 

Pigs, in Blankets (see Es- 
calloped Oysters) 30 

Pop-Overs 107 

Pop-Overs, New England. 108 
Pickled Beans (see 
Canned, 177; and Pickles 188 

Pork Chops 50 

Pork, Fried Salt 52 

Pork Steak 50 

Plum Pudding (see Spiced 

Pudding) 120 

Plum Short Cake (see 

Canning) 175 

Potatoes, Baked 68 

♦Potatoes, Baked Twice.,.. 68 
Potatoes, Boiled (with 

Jackets) 65 

Potatoes. Boiled, Peeled.. 65 

♦Potatoes, Browned 71 

♦Potatoes, Creamed 67 

♦Potatoes, Creamed, Raw.. 67 

♦Potatoes, Escalk)ped 68 

Potatoes, French Fried 70 

Potatoes, Fried Raw 69 

Potatoes, Fried 70 

♦Potatoes, Mashed, No. 1.. 66 
♦Potatoes, Mashed, No. 2.. 66 

♦Potato Omelet 85 

*Potato Patties 66 




Potatoes, Sour 71 

*Potatoes, Sweet 71 

*Potatoes, Steamed 69 

Potatoes with Raw Cab- 
bage 71 

Potatoes Puff or Souffle 
(see Salmon Souffle) ... 29 

Pot Pie 46 

Pot Roast 41 

♦Prunes 124 

♦Prune Whip 123 

♦Pudding, Baked Custard.. 122 

♦Pudding, Boiled Custard.. 121 

Pudding, Bird's Nest .... 120 

♦Pudding, Brown Betty ...120 

♦Pudding, Bread 121 

♦Pudding, Cream Rice il8 

Pudding, Emergency 119 

Pudding, English 119 

Pudding, Indian 118 

Pudding, Prune 124 

♦Pudding, Rice 118 

Pudding, Spiced 120 

Pudding, Yorkshire HI 

Pumpkin, Canned and 

Dried 188 

♦Puree of Beans and Peas 
(see Green Peas and 
Bean Soup or Baked 

Beans) 19 

Rarebit, Scotch 141 

Rarebit, Welsh 139 

Raspberry Whip 123 

Relish, Beet 96 

♦Rennet 164 

Rice, Spanish 81 

♦Rice Water 210 

Roly Poly (see Apple 

Dumpling) 119 

Rolls, Parker House 107 

Rolls, Swedish 102 

Salad Dressing 95 

Salad Dressing, Almond... 89 
Salad Dressing, Boiled ... 92 
Salad Dressing, Boiled for 

one 75 

Salad Dressing, French ... 93 
Salad Dressmg, Lemon- 
ade 89 


♦Salad Dressing, Orange... 89 

♦Salad Dressing, Targon . . 89 

Salad, Apple and Celery. . 90 

Salad. Celery and Egg 94 

Salad, Celery and Nuts ... 94 

Salad, Chicken 95 

Salad, Fruit, No. 1 89 

Salad, Fruit, No. 2 90 

Salad, Oyster 95 

Salad, Shrimp 95 

Salad, Tomato, No. 1 93 

Salad, Tomato, No. 2 .... 94 

Salad, Tomato, No. 3 94 

Salmon, Canned 29 

Salmon, Loaf 26 

Sandwiches, Cream Cheese 113 
Sandwiches, Cucumber ...113 

Sandwiches, Dainty 116 

Sandwiches, Fruit 114 

♦Sandwiches, Jelly 114 

Sandwiches, Nut and 

Cheese 116 

Saratoga Chips (see French 

Fried) 70 

Sauce, Brandy 126 

Sauce, Caramel 128 

Sauce, Chocolate 127 

♦Sauce, Cinnamon 126 

♦Sauce, Custard 128 

Sauce, Drawn Butter 57 

Sauce, Hard 128 

Sauce, HoUandaise 58 

♦Sauce, Lemon 127 

Sauce, Lemon 127 

♦Sauce, Maple 126 

Sauce, Mint 58 

Sauce, Tomato 58 

♦Sauce, White 57 

♦Sauce, Wine 127 

Sauer Kraut 178 

Sausage 55 

Scrapple (see Pig's Head 

Cheese) 54 

Shortcake, Strawberry 1 18 

Slaw, Cold 96 

Slaw, Hot 96 

♦Snow-Ball, A 121 

♦Soup, Bean 24 

♦Soup, Cream of Celery.... 23 




*Soup, Dried Pea 24 

*Soup, Fruit 24 

*Soup, Hamberg 19 

*Soup, Oyster 24 

*Soup, Potato 21 

*Soup, Tomato 24 

*Soup, Vegetable 21 

Spare Ribs, Roast and 

Boiled 52 

Spinach on Toast (see 

Cream of Spinach Soup) 22 
St r a w b e r ry-a d e (see 

*Orange-ade) 168 

*Stew, Chicken (see Fric- 

aseed Chicken) 51 

Stew, Irish 45 

Succatash (Mixed Vege- 
table) 75 

Squash 78 

Syrup 127 


Suet Pudding (see Spiced 

Pudding) 120 

*Tea 161 

*Toast 102 

*Toast, Creamed 112 

*Toast, Dipped 112 

Toast, French Ill 

*Toast, Milk ....112 

*Toast, Water 211 

Trout, Baked 27 

Trout, Boiled 29 

Veal Jelly Loaf 50 

Veal Loaf, Steamed 49 

Veal Stew (see Pot Pie).. 46 

Waffles ..109 

*Water, Albuminized 163 

*Water, Cinnamon 140 

*Whey, Lemon 163 

Whey, Wine 164 

*Zweibach 102 

"Give to the world the best you have 
And the best will come back to you." 

— Madeline Bridges. 

Let us then be up and doing. 

With a heart for any fate, 
Still achieving, still pursuing. 

Learn to labor and to wait. 

— H. W. Longfellow. 

"God bless our homes." 

The End. 

]\}i 28 'i^^^ 

One copy del. to Cat. Div.